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Table 1 Comparion of recent CV outcomes trials completed with GLP-1RAs and SGLT2 inhibitors

From: Clinical application of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in cardiovascular disease: lessons from recent clinical cardiovascular outcomes trials

  GLP-1RA SGLT2 inhibitor
Once-daily Once-weekly
ELIXA (lixisenatide) LEADER (liraglutide) SUSTAIN-6 (semaglutide) EXSCEL (exenatide) EMPA-REG OUTCOME (empagliflozin) CANVASa (canagliflozin)
Patient number 6058 9340 3297 14,752 7020 10,142
Median follow-up duration (years) 2.1 3.8 2.1 3.2 3.1 2.4
Key eligibility T2D with recent ACS T2D with high CV risk T2D with high CV risk T2D with high CV risk T2D with previous CV disease T2D with high CV risk
Prior CV disease (%) 100 81 60 73 99 66
Mean baseline HbA1c (%) 7.7 8.7 8.7 8.0 8.1 8.2
Metformin use (%) 66 76 73 77 74 77
Statin use (%) 93 72 73 74 77 75
RAAS inhibitor use (%) 85 83 84 80 81 80
Outcomes (HR [95% CI])
 MACEb 1.02 [0.89–1.17] 0.87 [0.78–0.97] 0.74 [0.58–0.95] 0.91 [0.83–1.00] 0.86 [0.74–0.99] 0.86 [0.75 0.97]
  CV death 0.98 [0.78–1.22] 0.78 [0.66–0.93] 0.98 [0.65–1.48] 0.88 [0.76–1.02] 0.62 [0.49 0.77] 0.87 [0.72–1.06]
  Myocardial infarction 1.03 [0.87–1.22] 0.86 [0.73–1.00] 0.74 [0.51–1.08] 0.97 [0.85–1.10] 0.87 [0.70–1.09] 0.85 [0.69–1.05]
  Stroke 1.12 [0.79–1.58] 0.86 [0.71–1.06] 0.61 [0.38–0.99] 0.85 [0.70–1.03] 1.18 [0.89–1.56] 0.90 [0.71–1.15]
 All-cause death 0.94 [0.78–1.13] 0.85 [0.74–0.97] 1.05 [0.74–1.50] 0.86 [0.77–0.97] 0.68 [0.57 0.82] 0.87 [0.74–1.01]
 Hospitalization for heart failure 0.96 [075–1.23] 0.87 [0.73–1.05] 1.11 [0.77–1.61] 0.94 [0.78–1.13] 0.65 [0.50 0.85] 0.67 [0.52 0.87]
 Composite renal outcomes 0.78 [0.67–0.92] 0.64 [0.46–0.88] 0.61 [0.53 0.70] 0.60 [0.47–0.77]
  1. Italic values indicate significance of p value (p < 0.05)
  2. ACS acute coronary syndrome, CI confidence interval, CV cardiovascular, GLP-1RA glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, MACE major adverse cardiovascular events, HR hazard ratio, RAAS renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, SGLT2 sodium-glucose cotransporter 2, T2D type 2 diabetes
  3. aPooled data from CANVAS and CANVAS-R
  4. b4-point MACE in the ELIXA trial and 3-point MACE in the other trials