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Table 3 Clinical and biological characteristics associated with incidence of major amputation

From: Influence of micro- and macro-vascular disease and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 on the level of lower-extremity amputation in patients with type 2 diabetes

Variables HR (95% CI) p value
Male gender 5.29 (2.38–11.75) < 0.0001
Age (years) 1.03 (1.00–1.06) 0.031
BMI (kg/m2) 0.97 (0.92–1.01) 0.185
Active smoking 1.82 (0.91–3.63) 0.089
Heart rate (bpm) 0.99 (0.97–1.01) 0.643
SBP (mmHg) 1.03 (1.01–1.04) 0.0001
DBP (mmHg) 1.00 (0.98–1.03) 0.596
Diabetes duration (per year) 1.03 (1.01–1.06) 0.014
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.24 (0.60–2.57) 0.554
HbA1c (%) 0.88 (0.72–1.07) 0.217
eGFR, ml min−1 (1.73 m)−2 0.97 (0.96–0.98) < 0.0001
Microangiopathy components
 uACR (reference < 3 mg/mmol)a   < 0.0001
 3–30 mg/mmol 2.12 (0.91–4.89)  
 > 30 mg/mmol 6.64 (3.11–14.20)  
Severe diabetic retinopathy 2.51 (1.35–4.64) 0.003
Macular edema 2.13 (1.07–4.25) 0.032
Macroangiopathy components
 Ischemic heart disease 1.14 (0.62–2.12) 0.667
 Carotid artery disease 1.15 (0.54–2.45) 0.715
 Peripheral artery disease 12.05 (6.87–21.12) < 0.0001
Biological markers
 TNFR1α (per 10 log pg/ml) 1.37 (1.26–1.48) <0.0001
 ANGPTL2 (per 10 log ng/ml) 1.33 (1.20–1.48) < 0.0001
  1. Data presented here are univariate Cox proportional hazard model. Italic data indicate p values below the statistical significance threshold
  2. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, uACR urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio
  3. aMissing data at baseline for 149 patients