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Table 1 Clinical and biological characteristics associated with incidence of minor amputation

From: Influence of micro- and macro-vascular disease and Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor 1 on the level of lower-extremity amputation in patients with type 2 diabetes

Variable HR (95% CI) p value
Male gender 5.28 (2.05–13.57) 0.0005
Age (per year) 1.02 (0.98–1.05) 0.198
BMI, kg/m2 0.99 (0.94–1.04) 0.740
Active smoking 1.01 (0.36–2.85) 0.984
Heart rate (bpm) 1.01 (0.98–1.03) 0.417
SBP (mmHg) 1.03 (1.01–1.05) 0.0003
DBP (mmHg) 1.04 (1.00–1.06) 0.015
Diabetes duration (per year) 1.01 (0.98–1.05) 0.425
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.77 (0.31–25.00) 0.364
HbA1c (%) 1.05 (0.85–1.29) 0.663
eGFR, ml min−1 (1.73 m)−2 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 0.008
Microangiopathy components
 uACR (reference < 3 mg/mmol)a   0.0007
 3–30 mg/mmol 2.15 (0.83–5.55)  
 > 30 mg/mmol 5.20 (2.15–12.55)  
 Severe diabetic retinopathy 4.14 (2.10–8.15) < 0.0001
 Macular edema 3.49 (1.66–7.34) 0.001
Macroangiopathy components
 Ischemic heart disease 1.09 (0.53–2.26) 0.805
 Carotid artery disease 1.98 (0.91–4.36) 0.085
 Peripheral artery disease 6.86 (3.41–13.81) < 0.0001
Biological markers
 TNFR1α (per 10 log pg/ml) 1.29 (1.14–1.46) < 0.0001
 ANGPTL2 (per 10 log ng/ml) 1.29 (1.16–1.43) < 0.0001
  1. Data presented here are univariate Cox proportional hazard model. Italic data indicate p values < 0.05
  2. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, uACR urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio
  3. aMissing data at baseline for 149 patients