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Table 1 Characteristics of the study sample according to VAT tertiles

From: Association between abdominal adiposity and subclinical measures of left-ventricular remodeling in diabetics, prediabetics and normal controls without history of cardiovascular disease as measured by magnetic resonance imaging: results from the KORA-FF4 Study

  All subjects VAT—lower tertile VAT—mid tertile VAT—upper tertile p value*
N 374 124 125 125  
Age (years) 56.2 ± 9.1 51.8 ± 7.8 57.0 ± 9.3 59.8 ± 8.3 < 0.001
Sex (men) 57.8% (216) 35.5% (44) 61.6% (77) 76.0% (95) < 0.001
BMI (kg/m2) 27.9 ± 4.8 24.2 ± 3.1 28.7 ± 4.1 30.9 ± 4.3 < 0.001
Diabetes status
 Normal 60.4% (226) 91.9% (114) 63.2% (79) 26.4% (33) < 0.001
 Prediabetes 26.5% (99) 6.5% (8) 28.8% (36) 44.0% (55)
 Diabetes 13.1% (49) 1.6% (2) 8.0% (10) 29.6% (37)
HbA1c 5.6 ± 0.7 5.3 ± 0.4 5.6 ± 0.9 5.8 ± 0.8 < 0.001
Hypertension 33.4% (125) 13.7% (17) 30.4% (38) 56.0% (70) < 0.001
Systolic RR (mmHg) 121 ± 17 110 ± 12 123 ± 16 129 ± 16 < 0.001
Diastolic RR (mmHg) 75 ± 10 70 ± 8 77 ± 10 79 ± 10 < 0.001
Antihypertensive medication 24.6% (92) 12.1% (15) 22.4% (28) 39.2% (49) < 0.001
Triglyceride levels (mg/dL) 130.5 ± 84.3 83.9 ± 38.9 132.2 ± 80.9 175.0 ± 95.6 < 0.001
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 217.6 ± 36.4 207.8 ± 33.9 225.9 ± 36.4 219.1 ± 36.8 < 0.001
HDL (mg/dL) 62.0 ± 17.5 69.8 ± 19.3 61.6 ± 14.4 54.7 ± 15.1 < 0.001
LDL (mg/dL) 139.4 ± 33.0 129 ± 30.5 147.6 ± 31.4 141.4 ± 34.5 < 0.001
Lipid lowering medication 10.4% (39) 3.2% (4) 9.6% (12) 18.4% (23) < 0.001
Smoking status
 Never-smoker 36.1% (135) 41.9% (52) 36.0% (45) 30.4% (38) 0.03
 Ex-smoker 43.9% (164) 33.1% (41) 44.8% (56) 53.6% (67)
 Current-smoker 20.1% (75) 25.0% (31) 19.2% (24) 16.0% (20)
MRI-based adiposity measures
 VAT (cm2) 147.31 ± 85.02 57.8 ± 23.23 139.77 ± 22.56 243.64 ± 57.22 N/A
 SAT (cm2) 278.51 ± 117.44 210.00 ± 86.43 308.84 ± 119.13 316.73 ± 113.14 < 0.001
 PDFFhepatic (%) 8.4 ± 8.4 2.8 ± 2.3 7.0 ± 6.7 15.5 ± 8.9 < 0.001
MR-based LV measures
 LV mass, indexed (LVM; g/m2) 71.7 ± 13.9 67.0 ± 11.8 72.5 ± 15.2 75.6 ± 13.2 < 0.001
 LV concentricity index (LVCI; g/mL) 1.13 ± 0.30 0.94 ± 0.19 1.11 ± 0.23 1.33 ± 0.33 < 0.001
 LV end-diastolic volume, indexed (LVEDV; mL/m2) 66.20 ± 14.87 72.52 ± 13.41 66.82 ± 13.65 59.3 ± 14.56 < 0.001
 LV ejection fraction (LVEF; %) 69.2 ± 8.2 68.5 ± 8.6 69.4 ± 7.3 69.6 ± 8.6 0.53
 LV stroke volume, indexed (LVSV; mL/m2) 45.4 ± 9.7 49.4 ± 9.6 45.9 ± 8.5 40.8 ± 9.0 < 0.001
  1. Data are means and standard deviations for continuous variables and counts and percentages for categorical variables
  2. RR blood pressure, VAT visceral adipose tissue, SAT subcutaneous adipose tissue, PDFF hepatic hepatic proton-density fat fraction, LV left-ventricular
  3. * p values are from one-way ANOVA and χ2 test, respectively