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Table 1 The main anthropometric and clinical characteristics of the study cohort

From: Influence of high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels on circulating monocytic angiogenic cells functions in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus

  All subjects High HDL HDL > 40/50 mg/dl (M/F) Low HDL HDL ≤ 40/50 mg/dl (M/F) p
N. (%) 119 59 (49.6%) 60 (50.4%)  
Age, years 63.6 ± 7.9 65.0 ± 8.4 62.1 ± 7.2 0.047
Duration of diabetes, years 11.8 ± 9.8 13.7 ± 10.7 9.8 ± 8.5 0.031
Sex (M/F), n (%) 69/50 (58/42) 25/34 (42/58) 44/16 (73/27) 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 28.8 ± 5.4 27.2 ± 5.8 30.4 ± 4.4 0.001
BMI categories (< 25, 25–30, > 30 kg/m2), n (%) 27/54/38 (22.7/45.4/31.9) 22/27/10 (37.3/45.8/16.9) 5/27/28 (8.3/45.0/46.7) 0.0001
Waist circumference, cm 102.4 ± 13.3 97.6 ± 14.0 107.2 ± 10.7 0.0001
Systolic BP, mmHg 145.6 ± 17.1 145.2 ± 15.8 146.0 ± 18.5 0.813
Diastolic BP, mmHg 79.5 ± 9.1 77.1 ± 8.9 81.9 ± 8.6 0.004
Hypertension, n (%) 90 (75.6) 40 (67.8) 50 (83.3) 0.048
Fasting glucose, mg/dl (mmol/l) 146.4 ± 35.4 (8.13 ± 1.97) 147.1 ± 34.7 (8.17 ± 1.93) 145.6 ± 36.3 (8.09 ± 2.02) 0.814
HbA1c, % (mmol/mol) 7.27 ± 0.88 (56.0 ± 9.6) 7.24 ± 0.81 (55.6 ± 8.8) 7.31 ± 0.95 (56.3 ± 10.4) 0.683
Total cholesterol, mg/dl (mmol/l) 181.2 ± 33.4 (4.68 ± 0.86) 191.3 ± 34.2 (4.94 ± 0.89) 171.2 ± 29.6 (4.43 ± 0.77) 0.001
LDL cholesterol, mg/dl (mmol/l) 101.1 ± 27.8 (2.62 ± 0.72) 100.9 ± 29.0 (2.61 ± 0.75) 101.4 ± 26.8 (2.62 ± 0.69) 0.930
HDL cholesterol, mg/dl (mmol/l) 53.3 ± 42.0 (1.38 ± 0.58) 73.5 ± 13.0 (1.90 ± 0.34) 33.5 ± 5.1 (0.86 ± 0.13)
Non-HDL cholesterol, mg/dl (mmol/l) 127.8 ± 31.9 (3.31 ± 0.83) 117.8 ± 31.6 (3.05 ± 0.82) 137.8 ± 29.3 (3.56 ± 0.76) 0.001
Triacylglycerol, mg/dl [mmol/l] 124.0 (75.0–194.0) [1.40 (0.85–2.19)] 81.0 (59.0–120.0) [0.92 (0.67–1.36)] 185.5 (131.2–237.7) [2.10 (1.48–2.69)] 0.0001
Creatinine, mg/dl (µmol/l) 0.90 ± 0.28 (79.6 ± 24.8) 0.80 ± 0.17 (70.8 ± 14.8) 1.00 ± 0.33 (88.4 ± 29.3) 0.0001
Uric acid, mg/dl (µmol/l) 5.35 ± 1.46 (318.2 ± 86.8) 4.83 ± 1.27 (287.2 ± 75.5) 5.88 ± 1.46 (349.7 ± 86.7) 0.0001
Albumin to creatinine ratio, mg/g 7.3 (3.9–18.8) 7.4 (4.6–13.7) 6.1 (3.4–36.4) 0.457
A/C ratio categories: < 30, 30–300, > 300 mg/g; n (%) 95/20/4 (79.8/16.8/3.4) 50/7/2 (84.7/11.9/3.4) 45/13/2 (75.0/21.7/3.3) 0.358
eGFR, CKD-EPI, ml/min/1.73 m2 82.5 ± 18.3 85.8 ± 14.7 79.2 ± 20.9 0.052
AST, U/L 22.0 ± 14.9 20.8 ± 11.6 23.2 ± 17.7 0.377
ALT, U/L 23.7 ± 14.3 21.2 ± 12.6 26.1 ± 15.6 0.063
GGT, U/L 32.6 ± 29.4 33.9 ± 33.6 31.2 ± 24.9 0.624
Smoking habits: no smokers, ex-smokers, current smokers, n (%) 63/33/23 (52.9/27.7/19.3) 39/16/4 (66.1/27.1/6.8) 24/17/19 (40.0/28.3/31.7) 0.001
Glucose lowering treatments
 Metformin, n (%) 97 (81.5) 48 (81.4) 49 (81.7) 0.965
 Sulphonilureas or glinides, n (%) 34 (28.6) 17 (28.8) 17 (28.3) 0.887
 Thiazolidinediones, n (%) 6 (5.0) 4 (6.8) 2 (3.3) 0.390
 DPP4 inhibitors, n (%) 36 (30.3) 15 (25.4) 21 (35.0) 0.256
 GLP-1 receptor agonists, n (%) 11 (9.2) 3 (5.1) 8 (13.3) 0.120
 Insulin, n (%) 35 (29.4) 19 (32.2) 16 (26.7) 0.507
BP-lowering treatments, n (%) 84 (70.6) 36 (61.0) 48 (80.0) 0.023
RAAS inhibitors, n (%) 70 (58.8) 32 (54.2) 38 (63.3) 0.313
Lipid-lowering treatments, n (%) 58 (48.7) 30 (50.8) 28 (46.7) 0.648
Non advanced retinopathy, n (%) 18 (15.1) 7 (11.9) 11 (18.3) 0.325
Major acute cardiovascular events (MACE), n (%) 21 (17.6) 7 (11.9) 14 (23.3) 0.101