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Table 4 Baseline RBP4 levels predicts IR and MS components after 10-year follow-up

From: Childhood retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels predicting the 10-year risk of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome: the BCAMS study

  Number of cases/total number of subjects Model 1 Model 2 Model 3 Model 4
OR/unit (95% CI) P OR/unit (95% CI) P OR/unit (95% CI) P OR/unit (95% CI) P
IR (HOMA-IR ≥ 3.0) 73/352 1.42 (1.08–1.86) 0.011 1.44 (1.07-1.92) 0.015 1.36 (1.02–1.81) 0.039 1.35 (1.01–1.81) 0.049
Central obesity 152/352 1.20 (0.95–1.50) 0.125 1.25 (0.99-1.57) 0.065 1.00 (0.74–1.35) 0.979 1.00 (0.74–1.34) 0.974
Elevated blood pressure 75/352 1.38 (1.07–1.76) 0.012 1.46 (1.08-1.99) 0.015 1.38 (1.01–1.91) 0.049 1.33 (1.01–1.76) 0.046
Reduced HDL-C 58/352 1.08 (0.80–1.47) 0.612 1.05 (0.77-1.45) 0.756 1.09 (0.78–1.52) 0.609 1.04 (0.75–1.43) 0.830
Elevated TG 61/352 1.83 (1.40–2.41) < 0.001 1.76 (1.33-2.33) < 0.001 1.54 (1.14–2.07) 0.004 1.70 (1.28–2.26) <0.001
Hyperglycemia 44/352 1.49 (1.11–1.99) 0.008 1.48 (1.10-1.98) 0.009 1.55 (1.14–2.09) 0.005 1.51 (1.12–2.03) 0.007
  1. OR indicates odds ratio for per 10 μg/ml (approximately 1 SD) increase in baseline RBP4 levels
  2. BMI body mass index, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, IR insulin resistance, TG triglycerides, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, MS metabolic syndrome
  3. Model 1: adjusted for age, gender and pubertal stage at baseline
  4. Model 2: Model 1 + additionally adjusted with physical activity, dietary score, and baseline BMI (except central obesity model)
  5. Model 3: Model 2 + additionally adjusted with levels of the individual components at baseline
  6. Model 4: Model 1 + additionally adjusted with adiponectin, leptin levels and BMI at baseline