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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of subjects with or without MS at baseline in the cross-sectional study

From: Childhood retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) levels predicting the 10-year risk of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome: the BCAMS study

Variables Non-MS at baseline MS at baseline P
N 3022 423
Gender (male %) 49.3 61.3 < 0.001
Age (years) 11.8 ± 3.1 12.3 ± 2.9 0.001
Puberty (stage 1/2/3/4/5%) 32.2/14.4/17.0/ 25.4/11.0 29.5/14.1/18.9/ 24.2/13.4 0.484
Exercise ≥ 3 times/week (%) 56.9 51.4 0.035
Dietary score 27.8 ± 4.2 27.1 ± 4.6 0.001
Adjusted for baseline age, gender, pubertal stage, physical activity and dietary score
 BMI (kg/m2) 21.2 ± 4.5 27.7 ± 4.1 < 0.001
 WC (cm) 70.5 ± 11.8 87.5 ± 11 < 0.001
 Body fat percentage (%) 23.5 ± 8.2 31.8 ± 6.9 < 0.001
 SBP (mmHg) 106 ± 13 121 ± 12 < 0.001
 DBP (mmHg) 67 ± 10 76 ± 8 < 0.001
 TG (mmol/L) 0.94 ± 0.46 1.67 ± 0.80 < 0.001
 TC (mmol/L) 4.08 ± 0.79 4.21 ± 0.84 < 0.001
 HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.44 ± 0.31 1.11 ± 0.23 < 0.001
 LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.52 ± 0.72 2.77 ± 0.73 < 0.001
 Glucose (mmol/L) 5.05 ± 0.47 5.41 ± 0.89 < 0.001
 Insulin (mU/L)a 7.69 (4.81–11.66) 15.09 (10.52–22.43) < 0.001
 HOMA-IRa 1.74 (1.05–2.67) 3.56 (2.46–5.49) < 0.001
 Adiponectin (μg/L)a 5.93 (3.98–8.48) 3.88 (2.85–5.47) < 0.001
 Leptin (ng/mL)a 5.00 (1.72–11.73) 15.2 (8.77–26.84) < 0.001
 RBP4 (μg/mL) 33.47 ± 11.19 38.54 ± 12.43 < 0.001
  1. All values are reported as mean ± SD, median (interquartile range) or percentage
  2. BMI body mass index, WC waist circumference, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TG triglycerides, TC total cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, MS metabolic syndrome
  3. aVariables were ln-transformed before analysis
  4. P values were from the Chi square test for categorical variables or the general liner model from continuous variables with adjustment of age, gender, pubertal stage, physical activity and dietary score at baseline