Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Clinical characteristics at baseline in the four categories of body composition classified using A/G ratio

From: Sarcopenic obesity assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can predict cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes: a retrospective observational study

  Normal (n = 187) Sarcopenia (n = 171) Obesity (n = 275) Sarcopenic Obesity (n = 83) p value*
Age (years) 62 ± 14 69 ± 11 63 ± 12 70 ± 10 < 0.001
Gender (% male) 39.6 67.3 46.5 75.9 < 0.001
Body fat (%) 33.7 ± 7.2 28.1 ± 7.9 38.8 ± 6.4 35.3 ± 5.3 < 0.001
Android fat mass (kg) 1.8 (1.4–2.3) 1.2 (0.8–1.6) 2.8 (2.3–3.7) 2.1 (2.1–3.5) < 0.001
Gynoid fat mass (kg) 3.1 (2.6–3.7) 2.1 (1.6–2.7) 3.4 (2.8–4.3) 2.5 (2.5–4.0) < 0.001
A/G ratio 0.57 ± 0.14 0.53 ± 0.17 0.86 ± 0.15 0.87 ± 0.12 < 0.001
SMI (kg/m2) 6.86 ± 1.05 5.70 ± 0.88 7.41 ± 1.15 6.00 ± 0.79 < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.3 ± 3.8 20.8 ± 2.9 29.1 ± 5.3 23.7 ± 3.0 < 0.001
Duration of diabetes (years) 10.2 ± 9.6 11.4 ± 10.9 10.7 ± 8.8 15.3 ± 13.1 0.001
History of CVD (%) 19 22 21 33 0.092
Current smoker (%) 12 16 11 22 0.083
SBP (mmHg) 131 ± 22 127 ± 18 133 ± 18 130 ± 19 0.072
DBP (mmHg) 77 ± 14 73 ± 12 78 ± 12 76 ± 13 0.001
Log ACR (mg/gCr) 1.69 ± 0.76 1.76 ± 0.75 1.75 ± 0.78 1.85 ± 0.77 0.497
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 73.8 ± 22.2 75.5 ± 29.8 69.5 ± 22.7 70.2 ± 25.9 0.054
PDR (%) 9 7 13 10 0.197
HbA1c (%) 8.2 ± 2.0 8.1 ± 2.1 8.3 ± 1.7 8.6 ± 1.8 0.266
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 66.2 ± 21.2 64.9 ± 22.3 67.6 ± 18.4 70.0 ± 20.0 0.266
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.32 (0.85–1.80) 1.12 (0.82–1.76) 1.56 (1.10–2.21) 1.29 (1.08–2.11) < 0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.50 ± 0.50 1.59 ± 0.53 1.33 ± 0.34 1.31 ± 0.41 < 0.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.80 ± 0.94 2.74 ± 0.78 2.90 ± 0.82 2.89 ± 0.97 0.233
AST (U/l) 21 (17–27) 21 (18–27) 24 (19–33) 21 (19–31) < 0.001
ALT (U/l) 19 (14–28) 17 (13–23) 25 (18–42) 18 (16–38) < 0.001
γ-GTP (U/l) 25 (18–48) 30 (20–48) 34 (22–59) 33 (22–59) 0.001
UA (μmol/l) 297 ± 90 287 ± 80 335 ± 86 325 ± 90 < 0.001
  1. ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; A/G, android to gynoid fat; ALT, alanine transaminase; AST, aspartate transaminase; CVD, cardiovascular disease; DBP, diastolic blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration ratio; GTP, glutamyl transpeptidase; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; PDR, proliferative diabetic retinopathy; SBP, systolic blood pressure; SMI, skeletal muscle index; UA, uric acid
  2. * p value for difference among the four groups in percepts (Chi square test or Fisher’s exact test) or means (ANOVA)
  3. p < 0.05 vs normal patients by Tukey’s test