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Table 2 Antidiabetic medication treatment patterns stratified by cardiovascular disease (CVD) status

From: Antidiabetic treatment patterns and specialty care utilization among patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease

Medicationa No established CVD N = 54,659 Established CVD N = 40,910 P value
No OAD 17,984 (32.9%) 17,137 (41.9%) < 0.001
OAD 36,675 (67.1%) 23,773 (58.1%)  
 1 OAD 23,166 (63.2%) 14,889 (62.6%) < 0.001
 2 OAD 9540 (26.0%) 6574 (27.7%) < 0.001
 ≥ 3 OAD 3969 (10.8%) 2310 (9.7%) < 0.001
Insulin 6211 (11.4%) 7472 (18.3%) < 0.001
GLP-1RA 2978 (5.4%) 1685 (4.1%) < 0.001
 Liraglutide 1683 (3.1%) 916 (2.2%) < 0.001
SGLT-2i 2265 (4.1%) 1042 (2.5%) < 0.001
 Empagliflozin 462 (0.8%) 209 (0.5%) < 0.001
 Canagliflozin 1348 (2.5%) 691 (1.7%) < 0.001
Other ADD 1101 (2%) 853 (2.1%) 0.444
  1. OADs: biguanide (metformin), sulfonylurea, thiazolidinedione, dipeptidyl-peptidase-4 inhibitor, alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, sodium–glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor
  2. Other ADD-other antidiabetic drug: pramlintide, name brand bromocriptine (Cycloset®), colesevelam, nateglinide or repaglinide
  3. ADD antidiabetic drug, CVD cardiovascular disease, GLP-1RA glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, OAD oral antidiabetic drug
  4. Categorical variables were evaluated for association using the Chi squared test; continuous variables were tested using the Mann–Whitney U test
  5. aMedication categories are not mutually exclusive, and patients could be represented in more than one category (“OAD” sub-categories by number of OADs are mutually exclusive within that category)