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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of real-world 2016 type 2 diabetes population, stratified by cardiovascular disease (CVD) status

From: Antidiabetic treatment patterns and specialty care utilization among patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease

Variable Missing n (%) No established CVD N = 54,659 Established CVD N = 40,910 P value*
Age, median (IQR)   58.2 (48.2, 67.0) 69.1 (60.8, 77.3) < 0.001
Race, n (%) 2677 (3%)    < 0.001
 White   40,779 (77%) 31,465 (78.8%)  
 Black   9892 (18.7%) 7265 (18.2%)  
 Other   2308 (4.4%) 1183 (3%)  
Gender, n (%) 3 (0%)    < 0.001
 Female   31,385 (57.4%) 18,916 (46.2%)  
 Male   23,273 (42.6%) 21,992 (53.8%)  
Insurance, n (%) 8602 (9%)    < 0.001
 Commercial   22,656 (46.9%) 7964 (20.6%)  
 Employee health insurance   3108 (6.4%) 1017 (2.6%)  
 Managed care   993 (2.1%) 383 (1%)  
 Medicaid   4277 (8.9%) 2380 (6.2%)  
 Medicare   17,032 (35.3%) 26,840 (69.4%)  
 Military personnel   223 (0.5%) 93 (0.2%)  
Median zip income (US$, thousands) 1484 (2%) 54.3 (41.8, 67.4) 51.7 (41.1, 66.9) < 0.001
HbA1c (%), median (IQR)   6.7 (6.1, 7.6) 6.6 (6.1, 7.4) 0.002
Hypertension, n (%)   40,666 (74.4%) 38,267 (93.5%) < 0.001
Hyperlipidemia, n (%)   36,367 (66.5%) 34,653 (84.7%) < 0.001
Current smoker, n (%)   6264 (11.5%) 4313 (10.5%) < 0.001
Body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2, n (%)   38,183 (69.9%) 26,936 (65.8%) < 0.001
Family history of CV disease, n (%)   36,064 (66.0%) 28,702 (70.2%) < 0.001
DCSI score < 0.001
 0   32,825 (60.1%) 6166 (15.1%)  
 1–2   16,182 (29.6%) 8149 (19.9%)  
 ≥ 3   5652 (10.3%) 26,595 (65%)  
Diabetes complicationsa
 Retinopathy < 0.001
  Not present   50,771 (92.9%) 35,445 (86.6%)  
  Abnormal   3068 (5.6%) 4126 (10.1%)  
  Severe abnormal   820 (1.5%) 1339 (3.3%)  
 Nephropathy < 0.001
  Not present   38,131 (69.8%) 14,027 (34.3%)  
  Abnormal   10,530 (19.3%) 13,937 (34.1%)  
  Severe abnormal   5998 (11%) 12,946 (31.6%)  
 Neuropathy < 0.001
  Not present   41,536 (76%) 24,485 (59.9%)  
  Abnormal   13,123 (24%) 16,425 (40.1%)  
 Cerebrovascular < 0.001
  Not present   54,657 (100%) 27,587 (67.4%)  
  Abnormal   0 (0%) 1681 (4.1%)  
  Severe abnormal   2 (0%) 11,642 (28.5%)  
 Cardiovascularb < 0.001
  Not present   52,079 (95.3%) 14,771 (36.1%)  
  Abnormal   42 (0.1%) 10,250 (25.1%)  
  Severe abnormal   2538 (4.6%) 15,889 (38.8%)  
 Peripheral vascular disease < 0.001
  Not present   54,039 (98.9%) 30,920 (75.6%)  
  Abnormal   577 (1.1%) 9203 (22.5%)  
  Severe abnormal   43 (0.1%) 787 (1.9%)  
  1. CVD cardiovascular disease, DCSI diabetes complications severity index, IQR interquartile range
  2. *Categorical variables were evaluated for association using the Chi squared test; continuous variables were tested using the Mann–Whitney U test
  3. aDCSI complications identified using ICD-9 codes as outlined by Young et al. [19]. For each complication, scale 0 = no abnormality, 1 = some abnormality, 2 = severe abnormality, as classified by Young et al.
  4. bCategory reflects DCSI-specific cardiovascular complications: atherosclerosis; other ischemic heart disease; angina pectoris; other chronic ischemic heart disease; myocardial infarction; ventricular fibrillation, arrest; atrial fibrillation, arrest; other atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease; old myocardial infarction; heart failure; atherosclerosis, severe; aortic aneurysm/dissection