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Table 1 Clinical characteristics of the participants

From: HbA1c variability and diabetic peripheral neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients

Variables Type 2 diabetes t/x 2 p
Total Without DPN With DPN
n (%) 563 461 (81.9) 102 (18.1)
Age (year) 56.4 ± 9.8 56.0 ± 9.9 58.4 ± 9.1 2.254 0.025
Female, n (%) 264 (46.9) 213 (46.2) 51 (50.0) 0.483 0.487
Body mass index (kg/m2) 25.4 ± 3.6 25.3 ± 3.7 25.9 ± 3.3 1.533 0.126
Systolic BP (mmHg) 134 ± 17 134 ± 17 137 ± 19 1.623 0.105
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 82 ± 11 82 ± 11 83 ± 10 0.688 0.492
Diabetic duration (year) 5.6 (4.5–8.5) 5.3 (4.4–8.0) 6.7 (4.9–9.6) < 0.001
Hypoglycemic treatments      
 Lifestyle intervention alone, n (%) 65 (11.5) 56 (12.1) 9 (8.8) 0.904 0.342
 Insulin injections, n (%) 161 (28.6) 127 (27.5) 34 (33.3) 1.369 0.242
 Insulin-secretagogues, n (%) 254 (45.1) 212 (46.0) 42 (41.2) 0.781 0.377
 Metformin, n (%) 252 (44.8) 199 (43.2) 53 (52.0) 2.612 0.106
 Thiazolidinediones, n (%) 294 (52.2) 247 (53.6) 47 (46.1) 1.883 0.170
Hypoglycemia, n (%) 72 (12.8) 58 (12.6) 14 (13.7) 0.098 0.754
Hypertension, n (%) 127 (33.8) 143 (31.0) 46 (45.1) 7.423 0.006
Statins medication, n (%) 209 (37.1) 170 (36.9) 39 (38.2) 0.066 0.797
Smoking, n (%) 144 (25.6) 116 (25.2) 28 (27.5) 0.230 0.632
Drinking, n (%) 116 (20.6) 98 (21.3) 18 (17.6) 0.666 0.415
Triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.74 (1.09–2.79) 1.71 (1.08–2.75) 1.86 (1.19–2.97) 0.355
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.85 ± 1.42 4.83 ± 1.32 4.93 ± 1.82 0.646 0.519
HDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.06 ± 0.27 1.07 ± 0.27 1.06 ± 0.28 –  0.207 0.836
LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.66 ± 0.83 2.67 ± 0.82 2.60 ± 0.86 – 0.766 0.444
Serum uric acid (μmol/L) 285 ± 98 286 ± 94 277 ± 113 – 0.886 0.376
HOMA-IR 2.86 (2.35–3.49) 2.72 (2.25–3.34) 3.41 (2.89–4.13) < 0.001
Initial HbA1c (%) 8.43 ± 1.15 8.34 ± 1.11 8.81 ± 1.27 3.461 0.001
UACR (mg/g) 20.1 (12.5–36.4) 17.2 (11.1–29.5) 37.2 (25.6–78.8) < 0.001
M-HbA1c (%) 8.85 ± 1.20 8.71 ± 1.16 9.51 ± 1.14 6.309 < 0.001
CV-HbA1c (%) 14.65 ± 3.32 14.22 ± 3.19 16.58 ± 3.20 6.739 < 0.001
  1. p-values were determined using Student’s t-tests, Mann–Whitney U tests or Chi square tests as appropriate