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Table 3 Repeated measures factorial ANOVA assessing cardiac reserve in type 1 (a) and type 2 (b) DM subjects

From: Exercise capacity in diabetes mellitus is predicted by activity status and cardiac size rather than cardiac function: a case control study

  Rest Peak
T1DM Control to T1DM P value, baseline Type 1 diabetes Control to T1DM P value*, interaction with exercise
(a) Type 1 DM subjects
 LVEF (%) 60 ± 5 62 ± 5 0.50 70 ± 5 68 ± 4 0.32
 LVs’ (cm/s) 6.5 ± 0.9 7.1 ± 1.1 0.11 10.6 ± 1.8 11.5 ± 1.9 0.12
 LVEDVI (ml/m2) 52 ± 12 61 ± 14 0.11 46 ± 13 56 ± 15 0.10
 RVFAC (%) 49 ± 5 46 ± 7 0.32 57 ± 7 55 ± 6 0.86
 RVs’ (cm/s) 10.5 ± 1.8 11.1 ± 1.5 0.33 17.1 ± 2.3 18.3 ± 1.8 0.55
 PASP (mmHg) 24 ± 5 26 ± 4 0.45 53 ± 11 53 ± 5 0.27
 CI (l/min/m2) 2.1 ± 0.3 2.5 ± 0.6 0.024 5.2 ± 1.0 6.2 ± 1.3 0.43
 HR (bpm) 67 ± 11 66 ± 12 0.93 140 ± 17 145 ± 9 0.57
 SVI (ml/m2) 32 ± 6 38 ± 7 0.021 38 ± 8 43 ± 9 0.43
  Rest Peak
T2DM Control to T2DM P value, baseline T2DM Control to T2DM P value*, interaction with exercise
(b) Type 1 DM subjects
 LVEF (%) 59 ± 5 58 ± 6 0.66 68 ± 5 69 ± 4 0.73
 LVs’ (cm/s) 5.8 ± 1.2 5.7 ± 1.0 0.76 8.6 ± 1.5 9.6 ± 2.1 0.08
 LVEDVI (ml/m2) 49 ± 10 58 ± 16 0.07 46 ± 8 55 ± 14 0.96
 RVFAC (%) 42 ± 4 45 ± 6 0.18 52 ± 4 51 ± 4 0.28
 RVs’ (cm/s) 10.0 ± 1.7 10.3 ± 1.2 0.56 16.1 ± 2.8 16.7 ± 1.8 0.66
 PASP (mmHg) 29 ± 6 27 ± 4 0.33 57 ± 10 54 ± 7 0.23
 CI (l/min/m2) 2.3 ± 0.5 2.3 ± 0.5 0.94 4.9 ± 1.0 5.9 ± 1.4 0.001
 HR (bpm) 73 ± 13 65 ± 9 0.11 125 ± 18 130 ± 14 0.001
 SVI (ml/m2) 32 ± 6 35 ± 4 0.19 40 ± 7 45 ± 8 0.60
  1. Values are mean ± SD
  2. Statistically significant differences between DM and control groups are highlighted in italic
  3. LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVs’ LV tissue Doppler septal peak systolic velocity, LVEDVI LV end diastolic volume index, RVFAC right ventricular fractional area change, RVs’ RV tissue Doppler free wall peak systolic velocity, PASP pulmonary artery systolic pressure, CI cardiac index, HR heart rate, SVI stroke volume index
  4. * P value represents the comparison between regressions of multiple measures during exercise with slope coefficients compared between diabetes and control subjects
  5. P < 0.0001 for peak exercise vs. baseline for individual groups