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Table 1 Patient demographics

From: Exercise capacity in diabetes mellitus is predicted by activity status and cardiac size rather than cardiac function: a case control study

  T1DM T2DM
T1DM (n = 20) Control to T1DM (n = 10) P T2DM (n = 20) Control to T2DM (n = 10) P
Age 35 ± 8 35 ± 9 0.99 52 ± 11 51 ± 13 0.8
Male (%) 13 (65) 6 (60) 0.74 16 (80) 7 (70) 0.66
Waist circumference (cm) 89 ± 13 84 ± 7 0.25 103 ± 10 91 ± 9 0.005
BMI (kg/m2) 25.7 ± 3.2 24.7 ± 3.4 0.44 29.3 ± 3.4 24.7 ± 2.9 0.001
BSA (m2) 1.9 ± 0.2 1.9 ± 0.2 0.8 2.1 ± 0.2 2.0 ± 0.2 0.25
HbA1c mmol/mol (%) 65 ± 16 (8.1 ± 3.9) 33 ± 2 (5.1 ± 0.2) < 0.0001 57 ± 12 (7.4 ± 1.1) 36 ± 3 (5.4 ± 0.2) < 0.0001
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 89 ± 4 88 ± 5 0.54 78 ± 17 87 ± 6 0.15
Urine ACR (mg/mmol) 1.4 ± 2.4 2.7 ± 4 0.30 9.7 ± 18.1 0.8 ± 0.6 0.13
Complications (%) 10 (50)    10 (50)   
 Microalbuminuria (%) 3 (15) 0 (0)   8 (40) 0 (0)  
 Retinopathy (%) 10 (50) 0 (0)   5 (25) 0 (0)  
 Neuropathy (%) 2 (10)    1 (5)   
Diabetes duration (years) 19 ± 10    12 ± 7   
Diabetes therapy
 Insulin (%) 20 (100)    11 (55)   
 Metformin (%) 0 (0)    19 (95)   
 Sulfonylurea (%) 0 (0)    5 (25)   
 GLP1/DPP4-I 0 (0)    7 (35)   
 SGLT2-I 0 (0)    2 (10)   
ACE-I/ARB 4 (20)    11 (55)   
Statin 3 (15) 1 (10) 1.0 14 (70) 2 (20) 0.019
24 h average BP
 Systolic (mmHg) 121 ± 10 116 ± 11 0.21 130 ± 10 127 ± 12 0.53
 Diastolic (mmHg) 74 ± 4 72 ± 6 0.33 79 ± 6 82 ± 9 0.27
Hypertension (%) 3 (15) 0 (0) 0.23 10 (50) 1 (10) 0.049
Smoker 0 (0) 0 (0)   3 (15) 0 (0) 0.06
MET hours 34.1 ± 30.5 40.2 ± 51.8 0.69 10.5 ± 12.1 27.8 ± 30.0 0.031
Cardiopulmonary test
 Maximum power (W) 236 ± 100 258 ± 89 0.57 158 ± 46 230 ± 49 < 0.0001
 Power (% predicted) 120 ± 33 122 ± 26 0.87 85 ± 18 115 ± 19 < 0.0001
 Maximum HR (bpm) 170 ± 15 179 ± 13 0.13 154 ± 21 165 ± 15 0.17
 HR (% predicted) 92 ± 7 97 ± 5 0.07 92 ± 11 98 ± 8 0.15
 \(\dot{V}O_{2}\) (ml/min) 2886 ± 877 3238 ± 867 0.31 2341 ± 601 2959 ± 521 0.01
 \(\dot{V}O_{2}\)peak (ml/min/kg) 38 ± 9 43 ± 13 0.20 26 ± 6 38 ± 8 < 0.0001
 \(\dot{V}O_{2}\)peak (% predicted) 99 ± 20 112 ± 31 0.16 88 ± 18 126 ± 33 < 0.0001
 \(\dot{V}{\text{E}}/\dot{V}{\text{CO}}_{2}\) 23 ± 3 22 ± 4 0.43 26 ± 3 23 ± 4 0.06
 RER 1.23 ± 0.10 1.29 ± 0.11 0.17 1.20 ± 0.09 1.23 ± 0.08 0.44
  1. Statistically significant differences are highlighted in italic
  2. BMI body mass index, BSA body surface area, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ACR albumin-creatinine ratio, GLP1 glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, DPP4-I dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, SGLT2-I sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, ACE-I angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, BP blood pressure, MET metabolic equivalent, HR heart rate, \(\dot{V}O_{2}\) volume of oxygen, \(\dot{V}O_{2}\)peak peak oxygen consumption, \(\dot{V}{\text{E}}/\dot{V}{\text{CO}}_{2}\) minute ventilation/volume of carbon dioxide, RER respiratory exchange ratio
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