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Table 2 Baseline characteristics

From: Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the CArdiovascular safety and Renal Microvascular outcomE study with LINAgliptin (CARMELINA®): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in patients with type 2 diabetes and high cardio-renal risk

  Total (n = 6980)
Age, years 65.8 ± 9.1
Male, n (%) 4390 (62.9)
Race, n (%)
 White 5595 (80.2)
 Asian 641 (9.2)
 Black/African American 411 (5.9)
 Othera 333 (4.8)
Region, n (%)
 Europe 2833 (40.6)
 South America 2310 (33.1)
 North America 1180 (16.9)
 Asia 657 (9.4)
Smoking status, n (%)
 Never smoker 3753 (53.8)
 Ex-smoker 2507 (35.9)
 Current smoker 713 (10.2)
 Missing 7 (0.1)
eGFR (MDRD), mL/min/1.73 m2 54.6 ± 25.0
eGFR (MDRD), n (%)
 ≥ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 728 (10.4)
 ≥ 60 to < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 1903 (27.3)
 ≥ 45 to < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 1349 (19.3)
 ≥ 30 to < 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 1937 (27.8)
 < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 1063 (15.2)
UACR, mg/g, median (25th–75th percentile) 162 (44–727)c
UACR, n (%) [mg/g]
 < 30 1390 (19.9)
 30–300 2896 (41.5)
 > 300 2691 (38.6)
 Missing 3 (0.0)
BMI, kg/m2 31.3 ± 5.3d
HbA1c, % 7.9 ± 1.0
Fasting plasma glucose, mmol/Lb (mg/dL) 8.4 ± 3.4 (151.8 ± 61.7)e
Diabetes duration, years 14.7 ± 9.5
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 140.5 ± 17.9
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 77.8 ± 10.5
Total cholesterol, mmol/L (mg/dL) 4.5 ± 1.3 (172 ± 48)f
LDL cholesterol, mmol/L (mg/dL) 2.4 ± 1.0 (91 ± 40)g
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L (mg/dL) 1.2 ± 0.3 (45 ± 13)h
Triglycerides, mmol/L (mg/dL) 2.1 ± 1.5 (188 ± 133)f
Glucose-lowering therapy, n (%) 6802 (97.4)
 Metformin 3823 (54.8)
 Sulfonylurea 2434 (34.9)
 Insulin 4039 (57.9)
Antihypertensives, n (%) 6637 (95.1)
 ACE inhibitors or ARBs 5655 (81.0)
 β-blockers 4144 (59.4)
 Diuretics 3711 (53.2)
 Calcium antagonists 2870 (41.1)
Platelet aggregation inhibitors (excluding heparin), n (%) 4764 (68.3)
Statins, n (%) 5010 (71.8)
  1. Data are mean ± SD unless otherwise specified, and may change slightly when the trial is completed
  2. ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin-receptor blocker, BMI body-mass index, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin A1c, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, MDRD Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study equation, UACR urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio
  3. aAmerican Indian/Alaska Native or Native Hawaiian/other Pacific Islander, b calculated by multiplying mg/dL values by 0.0555 [34], c n = 6977, d n = 6975, e n = 6915; f n = 6749, g n = 6744, h n = 6748