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Table 2 Characteristics and endpoints incidence of all diabetic patients and divided into tertiles of 24-month fasting glycemia variability

From: Long-term visit-to-visit glycemic variability as predictor of micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes: The Rio de Janeiro Type 2 Diabetes Cohort Study

Characteristics All patients
(n = 654)
1st-tertile
FG-SD
≤ 1.40 mmol/l
(n = 218)
2nd-tertile
FG-SD
1.41–2.60 mmol/l
(n = 218)
3rd-tertile
FG-SD
≥ 2.61 mmol/l
(n = 218)
p value
Age (years) 60.1 (9.6) 60.6 (9.8) 60.5 (9.2) 59.1 (9.5) 0.16
Male sex (%) 38.1 38.7 36.2 39.9 0.45
BMI (kg/m2) 29.8 (4.6) 29.9 (4.6) 29.9 (5.0) 29.5 (5.0) 0.63
Smoking, current/past (%) 45.1 46.5 38.5 50.9 0.031
Physical activity (%) 22.4 27.6 20.2 18.9 0.017
Diabetes duration (years) 8 (3–15) 4 (1–10) 10 (5–15) 10 (5–17) < 0.001
Chronic diabetic complications (%)
 Cerebrovascular disease 9.0 6.9 6.4 13.3 0.019
 Coronary artery disease 15.6 11.1 15.1 21.1 0.015
 Peripheral artery disease 17.0 10.6 19.9 20.6 0.008
 Retinopathy 32.7 19.2 36.4 41.4 < 0.001
 Nephropathy 31.0 22.4 26.0 45.8 < 0.001
 Peripheral neuropathy 29.0 20.4 30.4 37.3 0.001
 Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy 18.1 12.4 21.2 21.4 0.042
Diabetes treatment (%)
 Metformin 87.9 90.8 91.3 80.7 0.001
 Sulfonylureas 43.3 40.6 50.9 39.4 0.029
 Insulin 48.9 24.9 52.3 68.8 < 0.001
 Aspirin 90.9 87.5 90.2 94.5 0.040
Dyslipidemia (%) 87.3 88.0 87.2 86.7 0.92
 Statins use (%) 77.5 78.2 77.9 76.0 0.84
Arterial hypertension (%) 86.5 83.9 89.0 86.6 0.29
Number of anti-hypertensive drugs 3 (1–4) 2 (1–3) 3 (2–4) 3 (1–4) 0.001
 ACE inhibitors/AR blockers (%) 83.0 80.6 84.2 84.8 0.47
 Diuretics (%) 67.7 59.7 75.7 68.6 0.002
 Calcium channel blockers (%) 31.7 26.7 35.6 34.3 0.11
 Beta-blockers (%) 50.1 43.2 54.0 53.9 0.043
Blood pressures (mmHg)
 Clinic SBP 147 (25) 143 (22) 149 (26) 149 (25) 0.012
 Clinic DBP 84 (13) 83 (12) 85 (14) 85 (14) 0.11
 Ambulatory 24 h SBP 128 (15) 125 (13) 129 (15) 131 (17) 0.001
 Ambulatory 24 h DBP 74 (10) 73 (9) 74 (9) 75 (11) 0.078
Laboratory variables
 Baseline FG (mmol/l) 8.99 (3.89) 7.55 (2.83) 9.27 (3.72) 10.16 (4.44) < 0.001
 Mean 12-month FG 8.10 (2.42) 6.77 (1.67) 7.94 (2.11) 9.55 (2.45) < 0.001
 Mean 24-month FG 8.09 (2.39) 6.83 (1.67) 7.88 (2.11) 9.55 (2.44) < 0.001
 Baseline HbA1c (%) 8.1 (1.9) 7.1 (1.5) 8.1 (1.7) 9.0 (2.1) < 0.001
 (mmol/mol) 65 (20.8) 54 (16.4) 65 (18.6) 75 (23.0)  
 Mean 12-month HbA1c (%) 7.8 (1.5) 6.9 (1.0) 7.7 (1.1) 8.9 (1.5) < 0.001
 (mmol/mol) 62 (16.4) 52 (10.9) 61 (12.0) 74 (16.4)  
 Mean 24-month HbA1c (%) 7.8 (1.4) 6.9 (0.9) 7.7 (1.1) 8.9 (1.4) < 0.001
 (mmol/mol) 62 (15.3) 52 (9.8) 61 (12.0) 74 (15.3)  
 Triacylglycerol (mmol/l) 2.0 (1.5) 1.9 (1.4) 1.9 (1.2) 2.3 (1.8) 0.081
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.11 (0.30) 1.11 (0.28) 1.11 (0.28) 1.09 (0.34) 0.47
 LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.03 (1.00) 3.10 (1.01) 2.97 (0.93) 3.05 (1.09) 0.48
 Glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2) 81 (20) 82 (18) 81 (20) 79 (23) 0.22
 Albuminuria (mg/24 h) 13 (7–42) 10 (6–23) 13 (7–28) 20 (9–98) < 0.001
Macrovascular outcomesa
 Total CVEs 128 (2.56) 29 (1.69) 39 (2.38) 60 (3.89) < 0.001
 Major CVEs 96 (1.86) 21 (1.20) 28 (1.67) 47 (2.92) < 0.001
 Cardiovascular mortality 67 (1.26) 14 (0.77) 20 (1.17) 33 (1.94) 0.007
 All-cause mortality 158 (2.97) 36 (1.99) 46 (2.69) 76 (4.47) < 0.001
Microvascular outcomesb
 Retinopathy (incident/worsening) (n = 533) 152 (4.88) 32 (2.73) 42 (4.15) 78 (8.84) < 0.001
 Renal composite (n = 615) 183 (4.71) 43 (3.16) 57 (4.64) 83 (6.71) < 0.001
 Microalbuminuria (incident) (n = 436) 89 (3.23) 25 (2.30) 33 (3.61) 31 (4.30) 0.048
 Renal failure (n = 615) 91 (2.15) 16 (1.10) 25 (1.85) 50 (3.63) < 0.001
 Peripheral neuropathy (incident/worsening) (n = 471) 96 (20.4%) 20 (12.1%) 34 (22.1%) 42 (28.4%) < 0.001
 Peripheral neuropathy (incident) (n = 338) 42 (12.4%) 13 (9.7%) 13 (12.4%) 16 (16.8%) 0.11
  1. Values are proportions, and means (standard deviations) or medians (interquartile range)
  2. FG fasting glycemia, ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, AR angiotensin II receptor, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HbA 1c glycated hemoglobin, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, CVEs cardiovascular events
  3. aValues are absolute numbers (incidence rate per 100 patient-years of follow-up)
  4. bValues are absolute numbers (incidence rate per 100 patient-years of follow-up), except for peripheral neuropathy that are absolute numbers (proportions)