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Table 1 Characteristics of all diabetic patients and divided into tertiles of 24-month HbA1c variability

From: Long-term visit-to-visit glycemic variability as predictor of micro- and macrovascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes: The Rio de Janeiro Type 2 Diabetes Cohort Study

Characteristics All patients
(n = 654)
1st-tertile
HbA1c-SD
≤ 0.45%
(n = 218)
2nd-tertile
HbA1c-SD
0.46–0.85%
(n = 218)
3rd-tertile
HbA1c-SD
≥ 0.86%
(n = 218)
p value
Age (years) 60.1 (9.6) 61.2 (9.4) 59.9 (9.9) 58.7 (9.4) 0.007
Male sex (%) 38.1 42.2 37.6 34.4 0.26
BMI (kg/m2) 29.7 (4.8) 29.9 (4.6) 29.7 (5.0) 29.6 (5.0) 0.84
Smoking, current/past (%) 45.1 48.2 40.8 46.3 0.29
Physical activity (%) 22.4 23.4 23.5 20.2 0.64
Diabetes duration (years) 8.0 (3.0–15.0) 5.0 (1.4–12.3) 10.0 (4.0–17.5) 9.0 (5.0–15.0) < 0.001
Chronic diabetic complications (%)
 Cerebrovascular disease 9.0 11.5 5.5 10.1 0.075
 Coronary artery disease 15.6 14.7 15.1 17.0 0.83
 Peripheral artery disease 17.0 15.7 17.1 18.3 0.76
 Retinopathy 32.7 27.1 34.1 36.7 0.087
 Nephropathy 31.0 22.0 27.3 43.6 < 0.001
 Peripheral neuropathy 29.0 26.5 31.2 29.2 0.56
 Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy 18.1 14.9 17.4 21.8 0.24
Diabetes treatment (%)
 Metformin 87.9 89.4 86.2 88.1 0.61
 Sulfonylureas 43.3 44.5 43.6 41.7 0.86
 Insulin 48.9 29.8 51.8 65.1 < 0.001
 Aspirin 90.9 91.2 87.6 94.0 0.068
Dyslipidemia (%) 87.3 87.2 86.7 88.1 0.93
 Statins use (%) 77.5 79.7 75.6 77.1 0.57
Arterial hypertension (%) 86.5 84.4 88.1 87.2 0.51
Number of anti-hypertensive drugs 3 (1–4) 3 (1–4) 3 (1–4) 3 (1–4) 0.97
 ACE inhibitors/AR blockers (%) 83.0 82.0 82.0 85.0 0.65
 Diuretics (%) 67.7 68.4 66.5 68.1 0.92
 Calcium channel blockers (%) 31.7 35.4 33.0 26.6 0.14
 Beta-blockers (%) 50.1 47.6 51.0 51.7 0.68
Blood pressures (mmHg)
 Clinic SBP 147 (25) 147 (25) 145 (25) 149 (24) 0.12
 Clinic DBP 84 (13) 83 (13) 84 (13) 86 (14) 0.072
 Ambulatory 24 h SBP 128 (15) 126 (15) 128 (15) 131 (16) 0.002
 Ambulatory 24 h DBP 74 (10) 72 (9) 74 (10) 75 (11) 0.009
Laboratory variables
 Baseline FG (mmol/l) 8.97 (3.86) 7.53 (2.54) 8.83 (3.40) 10.54 (4.71) < 0.001
 Mean 12-month FG 8.10 (2.42) 6.90 (1.46) 7.98 (2.04) 9.35 (2.78) < 0.001
 Mean 24-month FG 8.09 (2.39) 6.93 (1.47) 7.97 (2.07) 9.35 (2.78) < 0.001
 Baseline HbA1c (%) 8.1 (1.9) 7.0 (1.3) 8.0 (1.6) 9.1 (2.1) < 0.001
(mmol/mol) 65 (20.8) 53 (14.2) 64 (17.5) 76 (23.0)  
 Mean 12-month HbA1c (%) 7.8 (1.5) 6.8 (0.7) 7.7 (1.2) 9.0 (1.4) < 0.001
(mmol/mol) 62 (16.4) 51 (7.7) 61 (13.1) 75 (15.3)  
 Mean 24-month HbA1c (%) 7.8 (1.4) 6.8 (0.8) 7.7 (1.2) 9.0 (1.4) < 0.001
(mmol/mol) 62 (15.3) 51 (8.7) 61 (13.1) 75 (15.3)  
 Triacylglycerol (mmol/l) 2.0 (1.5) 1.8 (1.2) 2.0 (1.6) 2.2 (1.6) 0.064
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.11 (0.30) 1.10 (0.27) 1.12 (0.33) 1.11 (0.32) 0.79
 LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 3.03 (1.00) 2.96 (0.91) 3.00 (1.08) 3.13 (0.99) 0.20
 Glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2) 81 (20) 80 (19) 82 (20) 80 (22) 0.53
 Albuminuria (mg/24 h) 13 (7–42) 10 (6–22) 13 (7–41) 19 (8–90) < 0.001
Macrovascular outcomesa
 Total CVEs 128 (2.56) 36 (2.20) 34 (1.99) 58 (3.67) 0.005
 Major CVEs 96 (1.86) 24 (1.42) 24 (1.38) 48 (2.93) 0.001
 Cardiovascular mortality 67 (1.26) 16 (0.92) 15 (0.85) 36 (2.07) 0.002
 All-cause mortality 158 (2.97) 44 (2.52) 49 (2.77) 65 (3.74) 0.10
Microvascular outcomesb
 Retinopathy (incident/worsening) (n = 533) 152 (4.88) 30 (2.63) 50 (4.89) 72 (7.96) < 0.001
 Renal composite (n = 615) 183 (4.71) 54 (4.11) 47 (3.63) 82 (6.58) < 0.001
 Microalbuminuria (incident) (n = 436) 89 (3.23) 31 (2.88) 25 (2.80) 33 (4.26) 0.21
 Renal failure (n = 615) 91 (2.15) 19 (1.35) 24 (1.72) 48 (3.42) < 0.001
 Peripheral neuropathy (incident/worsening) (n = 471) 96 (20.4%) 21 (13.5%) 35 (22.0%) 40 (25.5%) 0.011
 Peripheral neuropathy (incident) (n = 338) 42 (12.4%) 11 (9.4%) 9 (8.2%) 22 (19.8%) 0.005
  1. Values are proportions, and means (standard deviations) or medians (interquartile range)
  2. HbA 1c glycated hemoglobin, ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, AR angiotensin II receptor, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FG fasting glycemia, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, CVEs cardiovascular events
  3. aValues are absolute numbers (incidence rate per 100 patient-years of follow-up)
  4. bValues are absolute numbers (incidence rate per 100 patient-years of follow-up), except for peripheral neuropathy that are absolute numbers (proportions)