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Table 1 Patient socio-demographics, healthcare utilization, lab results and prescribed drugs up until the time of the index HbA1C measurement (6 months after diagnosis), stratified according to patient health status

From: Control of glycemia and blood pressure in British adults with diabetes mellitus and subsequent therapy choices: a comparison across health states

Characteristics Overall (n = 292,170) Otherwise fit (n = 270,068) Mild frailty (n = 21,448) Moderate or severe frailty (n = 654) p value
Age, mean (SD) 61.7 (15.6) 60.8 (15.5) 71.7 (12.2) 77.2 (11.2) < 0.0001
Female, % (n) 45.2 (132,167) 44.3 (119,595) 56.7 (12,169) 61.6 (403) < 0.0001
Number of primary care physician visits in the year prior to index measurement, median (Q1, Q3) 14 (8, 21) 13 (7, 20) 25 (16, 36) 39 (29, 54) < 0.0001
Charlson score, mean (SD) 1.10 (0.92) 1.04 (0.86) 1.85 (1.28) 2.73 (1.6) < 0.0001
At least two chronic comorbidities (from the list below) 8.0 (23,464) 5.1 (13,768) 42.8 (9187) 77.8 (509) < 0.0001
Specific comorbidities (not mutually exclusive)
 Hypertension 15.6 (45,470) 14 (37,695) 35 (7516) 39.6 (259) < 0.0001
 Chronic kidney disease 1.1 (3166) 0.8 (2054) 4.8 (1038) 11.3 (74) < 0.0001
 Ischemic heart disease (including prior myocardial infarction or CABG) 6.0 (17,501) 4.4 (11,888) 24.9 (5334) 42.7 (279) < 0.0001
 Heart failure 1.8 (5256) 0.8 (2246) 12.8 (2748) 40.1 (262) < 0.0001
 Cerebrovascular disease 2.1 (6133) 1.7 (4701) 6.3 (1360) 11.0 (72) < 0.0001
 COPD 3.3 (9523) 2.5 (6875) 11.6 (2489) 24.3 (159) < 0.0001
 Cancer 0.1 (347) 0.1 (270) 0.3 (75) 0.3 (2) < 0.0001
 Depression 4.6 (13,484) 4.3 (11,585) 8.4 (1795) 15.9 (104) < 0.0001
 Dementia 0.6 (1818) 0.4 (1118) 3.0 (647) 8.1 (53) < 0.0001
 Urinary incontinence 1.5 (4369) 0.9 (2528) 8.0 (1707) 20.5 (134) < 0.0001
 Arthritis 5.6 (16,476) 4.3 (11,687) 21.2 (4552) 36.2 (237) < 0.0001
Diabetes complications
 Retinopathy 5.2 (15,131) 4.9 (13,114) 9.1 (1951) 10.1 (66) < 0.0001
 Neuropathy 0.4 (1031) 0.3 (823) 0.9 (201) 1.1 (7) < 0.0001
 Nephropathy 0.2 (566) 0.1 (365) 0.9 (195) 0.9 (6) < 0.0001
 Any of the above 5.6 (16,396) 5.2 (14,097) 10.4 (2224) 11.5 (75) < 0.0001
Physical measurements closest to index HbA1C date
 SBP 138.2 (19.4) 138.1 (19.3) 139.9 (21.3) 137.9 (22.6) < 0.0001
 DBP 79.2 (11.0) 79.4 (10.9) 77.4 (11.8) 74.5 (12.5) < 0.0001
 BMI 30.0 (6.9) 30.17 (6.9) 28.8 (7.1) 26.0 (6.8) < 0.0001
Lab values
 Estimated glomerular filtration rate category (mL/min) 70.7 (18.1) 71.3 (17.8) 62.7 (19.5) 56.5 (20.7) < 0.0001
 < 30 1.6 (833) 1.3 (639) 4.8 (181) 9.8 (13) < 0.0001
 30 to < 60 17.6 (9089) 16.3 (7752) 33.7 (1275) 47 (62) < 0.0001
 ≥ 60 80.7 (41,581) 82.4 (39,192) 61.6 (2332) 43.2 (57) < 0.0001
 Mean (SD) total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.77 (3.62) 4.78 (3.73) 4.66 (1.69) 4.41 (1.17) 0.007
 Mean (SD) triglycerides (mmol/L) 2.02 (1.97) 2.02 (2) 1.96 (1.41) 1.93 (1.41) 0.05
 Mean (SD) LDL cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.6 (2.92) 2.61 (3.02) 2.43 (0.95) 2.15 (0.75) 0.001
 Mean (SD) HbA1c (%) 7.37 (1.64) 7.38 (1.64) 7.23 (1.56) 7.10 (1.46) < 0.0001
Drugs prescribed within 120 days preceding the index HbA1C measurement (not mutually exclusive)
 Insulin 17.0 (49,623) 16.9 (45,740) 17.5 (3764) 18.2 (119) 0.05
 Sulfonylurea 24.2 (70,666) 23.6 (63,625) 31.7 (6789) 38.5 (252) < 0.0001
 Metformin 48.2 (140,964) 48.4 (130,620) 46.9 (10,058) 43.7 (286) < 0.0001
 Thiazolidinedione 4.2 (12,376) 4.2 (11,441) 4.2 (911) 3.7 (24) 0.77
 Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors 1.0 (2899) 1.0 (2684) 1.0 (207) 1.2 (8) 0.77
 Other antidiabetic agents 1.4 (4088) 1.4 (3756) 1.5 (318) 2.1 (14) 0.15
 ACE inhibitor/ARB 46.8 (136,812) 45.4 (122,711) 63.6 (13,637) 70.9 (464) < 0.0001
 Statin 51.9 (151,782) 51.3 (138,509) 60.1 (12,882) 59.8 (391) < 0.0001
 Beta blocker 18.1 (52,776) 17.7 (47,821) 22.5 (4818) 20.9 (137) < 0.0001
 Other antihypertensive agents 71.4 (208,666) 70.5 (190,427) 82.5 (17,696) 83.0 (543) < 0.0001
 Antiplatelet agent 37.9 (110,589) 36 (97,216) 60.2 (12,908) 71.1 (465) < 0.0001
  1. Patient characteristics are reported as means and standard deviations for continuous variables and proportions for categorical variables (with numbers in brackets)
  2. Health status defined by eFI score: fit (≤ 0.12), mild frailty (eFI 0.13–0.24), moderate frailty (eFI 0.25–0.36), and severe frailty (eFI > 0.36) [21].