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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of study patients

From: p66Shc gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and progression of diabetic complications

Variable All patients Low p66Shc expression High p66Shc expression p value
Demographics
 Number 100 51 49
 Age, (years) 61.8 ± 10.8 62.1 ± 12.1 61.4 ± 9.4 0.823
 Sex male, (%) 60 55 65 0.293
Diabetes data
 Type 1/type 2, (%) 16/84 20/80 12/88 0.320
 Diabetes duration, (years) 10.2 ± 8.0 10.4 ± 8.1 10.1 ± 7.9 0.866
 HbA1c,  % (mmol/mol) 7.8 ± 1.6 (62 ± 13) 8.0 ± 1.6 (64 ± 13) 7.7 ± 1.6 (61 ± 13) 0.376
 Fasting plasma glucose, mg/dL (mmol/L) 173.5 ± 63.8 (9.6 ± 3.5) 180.3 ± 70.6 (10.0 ± 3.9) 166.7 ± 55.9 (9.3 ± 3.1) 0.293
Concomitant risk factors
 BMI, (kg/m2) 29.0 ± 4.7 29.4 ± 4.9 28.5 ± 4.6 0.377
 Waist circumference, (cm) 102.4 ± 14.1 103.9 ± 13.6 100.9 ± 14.6 0.300
 Current smoking, (%) 11 12 10 0.805
 Hypertension, (%) 70 78 61 0.061
 Systolic blood pressure, (mmHg) 137.4 ± 18.8 140.3 ± 18.0 134.5 ± 19.3 0.123
 Diastolic blood pressure, (mmHg) 80.3 ± 9.5 82.0 ± 9.7 78.6 ± 9.0 0.073
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL (mmol/L) 184.6 ± 38.3 (4.7 ± 1.0) 184.5 ± 35.9 (4.7 ± 0.9) 184.8 ± 41.0 (4.7 ± 1.1) 0.968
 HDL cholesterol, mg/dL (mmol/L) 52.4 ± 16.7 (1.3 ± 0.4) 51.8 ± 15.0 (1.3 ± 0.4) 53.0 ± 18.7 (1.4 ± 0.5) 0.722
 LDL cholesterol, mg/dL (mmol/L) 108.0 ± 32.0 (2.8 ± 0.8) 106.4 ± 29.2 (2.7 ± 0.7) 110.0 ± 35.0 (2.8 ± 0.9) 0.598
 Triglycerides, mg/dL (mmol/L) 121.0 ± 59.9 (1.4 ± 0.7) 131.6 ± 67.6 (1.5 ± 0.8) 110.1 ± 49.0 (1.2 ± 0.6) 0.073
Macroangiopathy
 Coronary artery disease, (%) 14 16 12 0.624
 Peripheral arterial disease, (%) 12 14 10 0.592
 Ankle-brachial index 1.18 ± 0.20 1.18 ± 0.20 1.17 ± 0.19 0.705
 Cerebrovascular disease, (%) 51 47 55 0.426
 Max carotid IMT, mm 0.94 ± 0.23 0.95 ± 0.21 0.93 ± 0.25 0.725
 Max carotid stenosis, (%) 15.1 ± 7.3 14.4 ± 17.8 15.9 ± 16.9 0.665
 Cardiac systolic dysfunction, (%) 5 8 2 0.187
 Cardiac diastolic dysfunction, (%) 35 33 27 0.463
 At least one macroangiopathy, (%) 62 65 59 0.574
Microangiopathy
 Retinopathy, (%) 29 33 20 0.149
 Autonomic neuropathy, (%) 12 12 12 0.942
 Somatic neuropathy, (%) 28 22 35 0.147
 Albumin-creatinine ratio, (mg/g) 80.3 ± 212.6 116.3 ± 289.4 43.5 ± 76.2 0.089
 Albuminuria > 30 mg/g, (%) 37 39 33 0.537
 Serum creatinine, (µmol/L) 81.7 ± 17.7 82.9 ± 20.7 80.4 ± 14.0 0.473
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 82.2 ± 18.5 80.3 ± 19.7 84.1 ± 17.2 0.309
 CKD stage III or higher, (%) 14 17 10 0.390
 At least one microangiopathy, (%) 76 80 71 0.299
Glucose lowering therapies (%)
 Insulin 37 37 37 0.958
 Metformin 63 63 63 0.958
 Sulphonylurea 27 37 16 0.024*
 Repaglinide 9 8 10 0.684
 Thiazolidinedione 2 4 0 0.165
 DPP-4 inhibitors 8 8 8 0.954
 GLP-1 receptor agonist 1 0 2 0.310
Other therapies (%)
 ACE inhibitor/ARB 64 71 57 0.165
 Other pressure lowering drugs 51 65 37 0.009*
 Aspirin 45 49 41 0.415
 Statin 56 61 51 0.330
  1. Patients were divided into equal groups based on the median value of baseline p66Shc expression (low vs high)
  2. * Not significant after Bonferroni correction