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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of normal controls and T2DM patients

From: Impact of overweight on left ventricular function in type 2 diabetes mellitus

  Controls
(n = 90)
T2DM patients
(n = 145)
p value
Clinical data
 Age, years 57 ± 15 60 ± 13 0.08
 Female, n (%) 50 (56) 67 (46) 0.16
 Body mass index, kg/m2 22.0 ± 3.9 25.4 ± 5.0 < 0.05
 Body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2, n (%) 14 (16) 70 (48) < 0.05
 Body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2, n (%) 3 (3) 27 (19) < 0.05
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 122 ± 14 129 ± 20 < 0.05
 Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg 72 ± 11 74 ± 12 0.27
 Heart rate, bpm 67 ± 11 75 ± 12 < 0.05
Echocardiography
 LV end systolic volume, mL 26 ± 9 26 ± 10 0.82
 LV end diastolic volume, mL 74 ± 22 75 ± 21 0.68
 LV ejection fraction, % 66 ± 5 66 ± 5 0.93
 Stroke volume, mL 67 ± 14 63 ± 13 < 0.05
 Left atrial volume index, mL/m2 26 ± 9 30 ± 9 < 0.05
 LV mass index, g/m2 71 ± 19 79 ± 21 < 0.05
 E/e′ 8.4 ± 2.5 10.7 ± 4.0 < 0.05
 e′ 9.0 ± 3.1 6.0 ± 1.6 < 0.01
 Global longitudinal strain, % 20.3 ± 2.0 18.0 ± 2.6 < 0.05
  1. Values are mean ± SD for normally distributed data and median and interquartile range for non-normally distributed data, or n (%)
  2. DM diabetes mellitus, LV left ventricular, E peak early diastolic mitral flow velocity, e′ spectral pulsed-wave Doppler-derived early diastolic velocity from the septal mitral annulus