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Table 1 Key cardiovascular and renal outcomes for CVOTs of glucose-lowering agents

From: Translating recent results from the Cardiovascular Outcomes Trials into clinical practice: recommendations from the Central and Eastern European Diabetes Expert Group (CEEDEG)

  Reduction in 3-point MACE Reduction in CV death Reduction in all-cause mortality Reduction in hospitalisation for HF Reduction in doubling of serum creatinine
EMPA-REG OUTCOME®
 RRR (%) 14 38 32 35 44
 p value 0.04 < 0.001 < 0.001 0.002 < 0.001
LEADER®
 RRR (%) 13 22 15 13 12
 p value 0.01 0.007 0.02 NS NS
SUSTAIN™-6
 RRR (%) 26 2 + 5 + 11 + 28
 p value 0.02 NS NS NS NS
  1. This is not a head-to-head comparison
  2. SUSTAIN-6™ was a non-inferiority study, and testing for superiority was not a pre-specified endpoint [22, 23, 25, 28, 29, 33]
  3. CVOT cardiovascular outcomes trial, MACE major adverse cardiovascular events (cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction or non-fatal stroke), RRR relative risk reduction