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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients in the CAD vs non-CAD groups

From: Human epicardial adipose tissue-derived and circulating secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (SFRP4) levels are increased in patients with coronary artery disease

  Total—CAD (40) Total—non-CAD (30) Adipose—CADa (16) Adipose—non-CADa (13)
Age (years) 60.9 ± 6.6 58.2 ± 6.3 59.6 ± 9.0 57.8 ± 6.4
Male (%) 31 (77.5) 17 (56.7) 11 (68.8) 7 (53.8)
BMI (kg/m2) 25.9 ± 2.9 24.7 ± 3.0 26.2 ± 2.0 24.5 ± 2.6
LVEF (%) 58.1 ± 9.3 56.2 ± 9.5 62.0 ± 7.9 60.5 ± 5.7
Fasting glucose (mmol/L) 6.2 (5.7, 7.8) 5.4 (5.0, 6.5) 6.6 (5.6, 7.5) 6.2 (5.1, 8.1)
Glycosylated serum protein (%) 15.2 (13.8, 18.3) 15.1 (13.8, 18.5) 17.4 (13.4, 19.4) 14.7 (13.6, 15.7)
Fasting insulin(uU/mL) 36.1 (24.4, 53.3) 24.1 (13.4, 36.2) 35.2 (18.8, 74.4) 21.7 (14.0, 32.1)
HOMA-IR 9.8 (6.7, 15.2) 6.1 (3.4, 10.0) 9.0 (6.4, 26.2) 5.1 (3.6, 9.6)
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.5 (1.0, 2.4) 1.5 (1.0, 1.9) 1.9 (1.1, 2.5) 1.2 (0.7, 1.7)
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.0 ± 1.1 4.7 ± 0.9* 4.1 ± 1.1 4.6 ± 0.8
HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.0 (0.8, 1.3) 1.2 (0.9, 1.5) 1.0 (0.8, 1.2) 1.2 (0.8, 1.4)
LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.6 ± 0.9 3.2 ± 0.9* 2.4 ± 0.9 2.8 ± 0.8
hsCRP (mg/L) 1.8 (0.9, 3.1) 1.3 (0.5, 4.0) 2.2 (1.0, 3.0) 1.2 (0.5, 3.0)
SFRP4 (ng/mL) 16.8 ± 3.3 14.5 ± 2.3** 15.7 ± 3.2 13.3 ± 2.4
Hypertension (%) 19 (47.5) 9 (30.0) 6 (37.5) 5 (38.5)
T2DM (%) 14 (35.0) 6 (20.0) 7 (43.8) 2 (15.4)
Smoking (%) 16 (40.0) 7 (23.3) 6 (37.5) 2 (15.4)
Aspirin (%) 34 (85.0) 4 (13.3)** 13 (81.3) 3 (23.1)§
Nitrates (%) 38 (95.0) 5 (16.7)** 15 (93.8) 3 (23.1)§
ACEI/ARB (%) 14 (35.0) 5 (16.7) 4 (25.0) 2 (15.4)
Statins (%) 23 (57.5) 5 (16.7)** 7 (43.8) 1 (7.7)
β-Blockers (%) 17 (42.5) 6 (20.0) 8 (50.0) 3 (23.1)
Calcium channel blockers (%) 10 (25.0) 2 (6.7) 4 (25.0) 1 (7.7)
Hypoglycemic agents (%) 13 (32.5) 5 (16.7) 7 (43.8) 2 (15.4)
  1. Data are shown as mean ± SD, median (lower quartile, upper quartile), or number (%)
  2. CAD coronary artery disease, BMI body mass index, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hsCRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, T 2 DM type 2 diabetes, ACEI/ARB angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker
  3. P < 0.05, Total—CAD vs Total—non-CAD
  4. ** P < 0.01, Total—CAD vs Total—non-CAD
  5. P < 0.05, Adipose—CAD vs Adipose—non-CAD
  6. § P < 0.01, Adipose—CAD vs Adipose—non-CAD
  7. aCAD or NACAD patients with adipose tissue available