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Table 1 Patient characteristics in the DM group and the no pre-existing DM Group (categorized by quartiles of ABG levels)

From: Admission blood glucose and 10-year mortality among patients with or without pre-existing diabetes mellitus hospitalized with heart failure

  All study patients No pre-existing DM patients by ABG categories
  DM patients (n = 1811) No pre-existing DM (n = 2182) Glucose < 110 mg/dL (n = 985) Glucose 110–140 mg/dL (n = 676) Glucose 140–200 mg/dL (n = 373) Glucose > 200 mg/dL (n = 148)
Age (y) 73 (65–79) 77 (68–84)†† 76 (67–83) 76 (67–83) 76 (67–82) 73 (66–80)**
Sex, female (%) 45.2 41.9 37.4 44.5 45.3 52.0**
Hypertension (%) 76.1 62.5†† 61.6 61.2 64.9 68.2
Dyslipidemia (%) 42.5 30.0†† 27.4 32.1 31.6 33.1
Current smoker (%) 9.4 10.6 10.3 10.8 11.8 8.8
History of smoking (%) 18.9 16.6 17.3 15.2 17.7 14.9
Hx of IHD (%) 82.5 75.4†† 76.0 73.1 74.9 82.4
S/P MI (%) 41.4 35.9†† 35.1 36.0 36.5 39.9
acute MI at presentation (%) 27.4 26.2 21.2 29.4 30.0 34.5**
S/P stroke/TIA (%) 14.5 10.7†† 10.3 10.7 10.7 13.5
AFib (%) 25.2 34.2†† 34.1 34.8 32.4 36.5
NYHA class III and IV (%) 43.9 38.0†† 35.3 39.9 41.0 39.7
PVD (%) 12.9 5.8†† 6.0 6.7 4.8 3.4
COPD (%) 19.6 19.3 17.4 20.9 20.6 21.6
Malignancy (%) 5.4 6.4 5.5 7.3 8.0 4.1
Past malignancy (%) 4.3 4.7 4.1 5.3 5.6 2.7
Active malignancy (%) 0.8 1.0 1.0 1.2 1.1 0.0
Cirrhosis (%) 2.3 3.3 3.5 3.4 2.1 4.7
LVEF (%)
 ≥50 25.1 28.7 28.6 28.6 33.1 18.0*
 40–49 21.8 20.8 21.5 22.3 18.1 16.0
 30–39 27.2 24.5 25.6 23.0 23.3 30.0
 ≤30% 26.0 26.0 24.6 26.1 25.6 36.0
Admission vital signs       
 SBP, mmHg 142 (123–164) 137 (119–160) 136 (119–158) 140 (120–160) 140 (122–161) 140 (120–163)**
 Heart rate, beats/min 82 (70–98) 80 (70–98) 80 (67–90) 82 (70–98) 82 (70–100) 85 (74–100)**
Laboratory values at admission
 Blood glucose mg/dL 182 (134–255) 114 (98–140)†† 96 (87–103) 124 (117–132) 163 (151–180) 263 (229–319)**
 Urea, mg/dL 50 (34–80) 44 (30–65)†† 45 (30–67) 46 (31–70) 47 (31–71) 50 (34–78)**
 Creatinine, mg/dL 1.2 (0.9–1.8) 1.2 (0.9–1.6)†† 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 1.2 (0.9–1.6) 1.2 (0.9–1.7) 1.2 (1–1.7)*
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 53 (35–74) 56 (40–75)†† 57 (39–77) 57 (38–73) 55 (38–75) 52 (37–72)**
 Sodium, mg/dL 138 (135–140) 139 (136–141)†† 139 (137–141) 139 (136–141) 139 (136–141) 137 (134–140)**
 Hemoglobin, g/L 12 (11–13) 12.5 (11–14)†† 12 (11–14) 12 (11–14) 12 (11–14) 12 (11–13)
Long term medication use at admission (%)
 Aspirin 64.6 52.7†† 53.3 52.7 50.9 52.7
 Clopidogrel 4.8 4.0 5.0 3.6 3.0 2.7
 Statins 42.1 28.7†† 28.7 28.4 29.2 28.4
 Beta blockers 53.7 45.3†† 46.0 46.0 42.6 43.9
 ACE-Is or ARBs 65.2 51.8†† 51.8 52.2 50.7 52.7
 Furosemide 65.0 57.4†† 58.5 58.4 52.8 56.7
 Thiazide 7.45 5†† 4.0 5.9 6.4 4.0
 Spironolactone 15.1 13.6 14.5 12.9 12.6 13.5
  1. Data are given as median (interquartile range) or percentage unless otherwise indicated
  2. SI conversion factors: To convert glucose to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.055; to convert urea to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.357; to convert creatinine to micromoles per liter, multiply by 88.4
  3. ABG admission blood glucose, ACE-I angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, DM diabetes mellitus, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, MI myocardial infarction, NA not applicable, NYHA New York Heart Association, PVD peripheral vascular disease, SBP systolic blood pressure, S/P status post, TIA transient ischemic attack
  4. * p < 0.1 and ** p < 0.01 for trend among quartiles of ABG levels in patients with no pre-existing DM
  5. p < 0.1 and †† p value <0.01 for comparison between patients with DM and patients with no pre-exisiting DM
  6. Of 3993 patients, 2775 had LVEF data