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Table 3 Risk of major cardiovascular events and procedures in males and females with and without diabetes between 2004–2005 and 2014–2015 in England

From: Gender differences in hospital admissions for major cardiovascular events and procedures in people with and without diabetes in England: a nationwide study 2004–2014

Rate ratio (95% CI)
  No diabetesa Diabetesb Malea Femalec
Male (reference) Female Male (reference) Female No diabetes (reference) Diabetes No diabetes (reference) Diabetes
Admissions
 AMI 1.00 0.33 (0.29–0.39)d 1.00 0.46 (0.40–0.53)d 1.00 3.15 (2.72–3.64)d 1.00 4.27 (3.78–4.93)d
 Stroke 1.00 0.86 (0.75–0.99)e 1.00 0.73 (0.63–0.84)d 1.00 2.67 (2.31–3.09)d 1.00 2.29 (1.94–2.60)d
 PCI 1.00 0.27 (0.24–0.30)d 1.00 0.37 (0.34–0.42)d 1.00 3.14 (2.83–3.48)d 1.00 4.37 (3.93–4.85)d
 CABG 1.00 0.22 (0.20–0.24)d 1.00 0.28 (0.25–0.30)d 1.00 5.01 (4.59–5.05)d 1.00 6.24 (5.66–6.88)d
In-patient mortality
 AMI 1.00 0.59 (0.51–0.68)d 1.00 0.59 (0.51–0.68)d 1.00 0.68 (0.59–0.79)d 1.00 1.17 (1.01–1.34)f
 Stroke 1.00 0.99 (0.86–1.15) 1.00 0.89 (0.76–1.04) 1.00 0.69 (0.59–0.80)d 1.00 0.62 (0.52–0.71)d
 PCI 1.00 0.47 (0.41–0.52)d 1.00 0.52 (0.45–0.60)d 1.00 1.18 (1.04–1.33)e 1.00 1.32 (1.15–1.51)d
 CABG 1.00 0.48 (0.43–0.51)d 1.00 0.51 (0.45–0.57)d 1.00 0.93 (0.85–1.02) 1.00 1.01 (0.91–1.12)
  1. AMI acute myocardial infarction, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, CI confidence interval
  2. aRate ratios are obtained from negative binomial regression models adjusted for age, sex, diabetes status and study year with men without diabetes as reference
  3. bRate ratios are obtained from negative binomial regression models adjusted for age, sex, diabetes status and study year with men with diabetes as reference
  4. cRate ratios are obtained from negative binomial regression models adjusted for age, sex, diabetes status and study year with women without diabetes as reference
  5. dP < 0.001
  6. eP < 0.01
  7. fP < 0.05