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Table 4 Univariate and multiple linear regression models for serum NGAL (A) and MMP-9/NGAL (B, log-transformed) concentrations in diabetic patients

From: Neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) is elevated in type 2 diabetics with carotid artery stenosis and reduced under metformin treatment

  Univariate models Multiple model
β ± SEa p β ± SEa p
(A)
 Insulin −21.75 ± 14.41 0.136 −10.97 ± 13.30 0.413
 Metformin −74.67 ± 10.98 <0.0001 −74.60 ± 11.84 <0.0001
 Other anti-DM medication −7.56 ± 14.07 0.593 −7.31 ± 11.21 0.517
 HBA1c 5.81 ± 6.70 0.388 14.12 ± 5.94 0.021
 log_Neutrophils 33.68 ± 18.69 0.076 9.57 ± 14.88 0.523
(B)
 Insulin −0.29 ± 0.27 0.271 1.88 ± 1.02 0.072
 Metformin −0.69 ± 0.247 0.0067 −0.57 ± 0.28 0.043
 Other anti-DM medication 0.0087 ± 0.258 0.973 0.04 ± 0.26 0.875
 HBA1c 0.05 ± 0.123 0.665 0.12 ± 0.14 0.405
 log_Neutrophils 0.821 ± 0.339 0.018 0.63 ± 0.35 0.073
  1. aRegression parameter (β) ± standard error (SE)