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Table 1 Characteristics of study subjects Table 1

From: Preclinical carotid atherosclerosis in patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), type 2 diabetes and classical type 1 diabetes

Variables Type 1 diabetes (n = 116) LADA (n = 71) Type 2 diabetes (n = 191) P value
Age (years) 56.5 ± 10.8 58.3 ± 11.6 58.3 ± 10.5 0.321
Male n (%) 52 (44.8) 37 (52.1) 105 (55) 0.224
BMI (kg/m2) 26.5 ± 3.9 27.4 ± 5 31.3 ± 5.3 <0.001a
Waist (cm) 91.6 ± 13.3 96.3 ± 14 104.8 ± 11.7 <0.001
Diabetes duration (years) 23.7 ± 12.4 13.2 ± 9.7 8.7 ± 7.9 <0.001
Smoking (current/past/never) n (%) 21 (18.1)/33 (28.4)/62 (53.4) 17 (23.9)/22 (31)/32 (45.4) 41 (21.5)/66 (34.6)/83 (43.5) 0.647
Anti-hypertensive treatment n (%) 54 (46.6) 37 (52.1) 98 (51.3) 0.667
Statin treatment n (%) 73 (62.9) 42 (59.2) 71 (37. 2) <0.001a
Antiplatelet agents n (%) 50 (43.1) 40 (56.3) 59 (30.9) 0.002b
Metformin treatment n (%) 0 31 (43.7) 138 (72.3) <0.001
Insulin treatment n (%) 100 63 (88.7) 37 (19.4) <0.001
Fasting glycemia (mg/dl) 170.9 ± 79.1 143.8 ± 53.4 151.7 ± 52.6 0.006c
HbA1c (%) 7.7 ± 1 7.7 ± 1.1 7.4 ± 1.3 0.07
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 60.6 ± 12.5 61 ± 11.4 57.3 ± 18.6 0.07
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 184.9 ± 29.8 178.9 ± 37.8 185.6 ± 35.3 0.357
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 102.6 ± 25.4 102 ± 24.8 110.6 ± 29.4 0.015a
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 65.9 ± 14.6 61.5 ± 18.2 48.4 ± 12.1 <0.001a
Triglycerides (mg/dl) 79.9 ± 36.4 100.5 ± 72.9 141.3 ± 78.7 <0.001a
Diabetic retinopathy n (%) 52 (44.8) 13 (18.3) 36 (18.8) <0.001c
Microalbuminuria > 30 mg/g creatinine 10 (8.6) 7 (9.9) 12 (6.3) 0.563
Urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (mg/g) 12.2 ± 29.8 20.1 ± 69.6 14.5 ± 32.9 0.451
Mean IMT 0.750 ± 0.109 0.775 ± 0.147 0.793 ± 0.135 0.047c
  1. Values are expressed as the mean ± SD or percentages
  2. LADA latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, BMI body mass index, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HbA1c glycosylated haemoglobin
  3. a Type 2 diabetes different from LADA and type 1 diabetes
  4. b Type 2 diabetes different from LADA
  5. c Type 1 diabetes different from LADA and type 2 diabetes