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Table 1 Comparison of baseline demographic and clinical characteristics in two study cohorts before and after matching

From: Heart failure hospitalization risk associated with use of two classes of oral antidiabetic medications: an observational, real-world analysis

  Overall unmatched cohorts Matched cohorts
DPP4
n = 32,060
SGLT2
n = 5467
p value* (standardized difference, %) DPP4
n = 9798
SGLT2
n = 4899
p value* (standardized difference, %)
Age at index date (mean, SD) 59.0 (12.5) 54.6 (10.0) <.001 (39%) 55.1 (0.1) 54.9 (0.1) .19 (2%)
Age categories, n (%)    <.001    .68
 18–44 3911 (12.2) 871 (15.9) (11%) 1591 (16.2) 757 (15.5) (2%)
 45–54 7713 (24.1) 1689 (30.9) (15%) 2942 (30.0) 1484 (30.3) (1%)
 55–64 10,386 (32.4) 2185 (40.0) (16%) 3832 (39.1) 1937 (39.5) (1%)
 ≥65 10,050 (31.4) 722 (13.2) (45%) 1433 (14.6) 721 (14.7) (0%)
Gender, n (%)    <.001    .73
 Female 13,744 (42.9) 2513 (46.0) (6%) 4450 (45.4) 2210 (45.1) (1%)
Comorbidity
 DCI, mean (SD) 1.69 (1.5) 1.43 (1.4) <.001 (20%) 1.4 (0.01) 1.4 (0.02) .54 (1%)
 DCI categories, n (%)    <.001    .24
  0 2483 (7.7) 330 (6.0) (7%) 721 (7.4) 322 (6.6) (3%)
  1 18,075 (56.4) 3509 (64.2) (16%) 6276 (64.1) 3162 (64.5) (1%)
  2 5613 (17.5) 1014 (18.6) (3%) 1729 (17.7) 849 (17.3) (1%)
  3 5889 (18.4) 614 (11.2) (20%) 1072 (10.9) 566 (1.6) (2%)
Provider specialty on index fill, n (%)    <.001    .96
 Endocrinologist 3327 (10.4) 1114 (20.4) (28%) 1425 (14.5) 710 (14.5) (0%)
 PCP 23,215 (72.4) 3382 (61.9) (23%) 6581 (67.2) 3283 (67.0) (0%)
 Other 5518 (17.2) 971 (17.8) (1%) 1792 (18.3) 906 (18.5) (1%)
Diabetes complications, n (%)
 Any 12,816 (40.0) 1784 (32.6) <.001 (15%) 3032 (31.0) 1561 (31.9) .26 (2%)
 Cardiovascular 6635 (20.7) 726 (13.3) <.001 (20%) 1318 (13.5) 671 (13.7) .68 (1%)
 Neuropathy 4170 (13.0) 751 (13.7) .14 (2%) 1148 (11.7) 616 (12.6) .13 (3%)
 Nephropathy 3663 (11.4) 312 (5.7) <.001 (21%) 544 (5.6) 290 (5.9) .36 (2%)
 Retinopathy 2165 (6.8) 336 (6.2) .10 (3%) 548 (5.6) 274 (5.6) 1.00 (0%)
 Peripheral vascular 1886 (5.9) 191 (3.5) <.001 (11%) 345 (3.5) 180 (3.7) .64 (1%)
 Cerebrovascular 1580 (4.9) 129 (2.4) <.001 (14%) 273 (2.8) 125 (2.6) .41 (2%)
 Metabolic 204 (0.6) 35 (0.6) 0.97 (0%) 49 (0.5) 28 (0.6) .57 (1%)
History of adverse events, n (%)
 Renal 2618 (8.2) 155 (2.8) <.001 (24%) 297 (3.0) 155 (3.2) .66 (1%)
 UTI 2106 (6.6) 279 (5.1) <.001 (6%) 509 (5.2) 258 (5.3) .85 (0%)
 CHF 1641 (5.1) 115 (2.1) <.001 (16%) 225 (2.3) 112 (2.3) .97 (0%)
 Hypoglycemia 886 (2.8) 157 (2.9) 0.65 (1%) 248 (2.5) 130 (2.7) .66 (1%)
 Ketoacidosis 101 (0.3) 13 (0.2) 0.34 (2%) 22 (0.2) 12 (0.2) .81 (0%)
 Pancreatitis 98 (0.3) 30 (0.6) .004 (4%) 36 (0.4) 14 (0.3) .42 (1%)
Prior OAD use, n (%)
 Any 24,394 (76.1) 4183 (76.5) .50 (1%) 7496 (76.5) 3721 (76.0) .46 (1%)
 Metformin 19,700 (61.5) 3431 (62.8) .07 (3%) 6105 (62.3) 3084 (63.0) .45 (1%)
 Sulfonylurea 10,576 (33.0) 1720 (31.5) .03 (3%) 3056 (31.2) 1575 (32.2) .24 (2%)
 TZD 1880 (5.9) 404 (7.4) <.001 (6%) 649 (6.6) 338 (6.9) .53 (1%)
 Combination OAD 1001 (3.1) 272 (5.0) <.001 (9%) 421 (4.3) 213 (4.4) .89 (0%)
 Meglitinide 370 (1.2) 58 (1.1) .55 (1%) 91 (0.9) 52 (1.1) .44 (1%)
 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor 109 (0.3) 19 (0.4) .93 (0%) 25 (0.3) 16 (0.3) .44 (1%)
MPR of any OAD, mean (SD) 0.44 (0.4) 0.47 (0.5) <.001 (10%) 0.45 (0.004) 0.46 (0.005) .14 (3%)
Insulin, n (%) 3237 (10.1) 1481 (27.1) <.001 (45%) 1848 (18.9) 920 (18.8) .91 (0%)
Other medications, n (%)
 Cardiovascular drugs 4096 (12.8) 445 (8.1) <.001 (17%) 869 (8.9) 403 (8.2) .19 (2%)
 Statin 18,578 (58.0) 3017 (55.2) <.001 (6%) 5307 (54.2) 2696 (55.0) .32 (2%)
 ACE/ARB 14,856 (46.3) 2418 (44.2) .004 (4%) 4211 (43.0) 2139 (43.7) .43 (1%)
 Diuretic 10,991 (34.3) 1774 (32.5) .008 (4%) 3063 (31.3) 1585 (32.4) .18 (2%)
  Spironolactone 709 (2.2) 114 (2.1) 0.56 (1%) 172 (1.8) 104 (2.1) .12 (2%)
 Beta blocker 9171 (28.6) 1292 (23.6) <.001 (11%) 2250 (23.0) 1159 (23.7) .35 (2%)
  1. ACE/ARB angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker, CHF coronary heart failure, DCI Deyo–Charlson comorbidity index, DPP4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, MPR medication possession ratio, OAD oral antidiabetic drug, PCP primary care provider, SD standard deviation, SGLT2 sodium–glucose co-transporter 2, TZD thiazolidinediones, UTI urinary tract infection
  2. * p values were derived from χ2 tests for categorical variables and t tests for continuous variables. Comparison group was DPP4