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Table 2 Glucose and heart rate variability during 24-h and each time-phase in the control group

From: α-Glucosidase inhibitor miglitol attenuates glucose fluctuation, heart rate variability and sympathetic activity in patients with type 2 diabetes and acute coronary syndrome: a multicenter randomized controlled (MACS) study

Parameters Control (n = 17 in CGM, 18 in Holter ECG)
0700–0700 h (24-h) 0700–1800 h (day-time) 1800–0000 h (night-time) 0000–0700 h (bed-time)
Day 1 Day 2 P value Day 1 Day 2 P value Day 1 Day 2 P value Day 1 Day 2 P value
Mean glucose (mmol/L) 7.66 (1.79) 7.72 (1.85) 0.758 7.91 (2.06) 7.77 (1.93) 0.640 8.25 (2.24) 8.50 (2.19) 0.296 6.77 (1.51) 6.96 (1.67) 0.508
Min glucose (mmol/L) 5.04 (1.47) 5.44 (1.35) 0.245 5.38 (1.57) 5.81 (1.10) 0.242 6.22 (1.53) 6.35 (1.44) 0.567 5.96 (1.48) 5.95 (1.72) 0.963
Max glucose (mmol/L) 11.24 (3.18) 11.26 (3.26) 0.969 10.62 (3.08) 10.28 (3.17) 0.333 10.52 (3.18) 10.85 (3.12) 0.411 7.68 (1.90) 8.17 (2.13) 0.189
∆ glucose (mmol/L) 6.21 (3.12) 5.82 (2.87) 0.411 5.24 (2.84) 4.47 (2.61) 0.056 4.30 (2.79) 4.50 (2.83) 0.453 1.72 (1.04) 2.22 (1.43) 0.045
SD glucose (mmol/L) 1.45 (0.87) 1.28 (0.69) 0.149 1.37 (0.85) 1.12 (0.67) 0.061 1.29 (0.86) 1.29 (0.87) 0.939 0.46 (0.30) 0.56 (0.38) 0.200
CV glucose (%) 18.3 (8.4) 16.4 (7.5) 0.175 16.3 (9.2) 13.8 (5.8) 0.190 14.0 (9.3) 15.0 (10.6) 0.493 8.3 (5.4) 10.0 (6.9) 0.200
Mean HR (beats/min) 68 (9) 70 (10) 0.002 69 (9) 70 (10) 0.157 66 (9) 66 (10) 0.168 66 (9) 66 (10) 0.400
Min HR (beats/min) 58 (8) 58 (8) 0.166 61 (10) 61 (8) 0.837 59 (8) 59 (9) 0.949 59 (8) 59 (9) 0.864
Max HR (beats/min) 89 (14) 93 (16) 0.012 85 (12) 89 (15) 0.152 82 (12) 87 (16) 0.015 82 (12) 87 (16) 0.074
SDNN (ms) 99 (35) 115 (42) 0.004 93 (38) 98 (30) 0.384 87 (33) 104 (41) 0.022 76 (30) 93 (40) 0.031
RMSSD (ms) 71 (29) 79 (34) 0.015 80 (40) 81 (31) 0.272 68 (27) 76 (36) 0.130 66 (24) 80 (39) 0.034
Mean LF/HF 1.11 (0.76) 1.24 (0.67) 0.044 0.97 (0.75) 1.21 (0.61) 0.012 1.15 (0.74) 1.22 (0.70) 0.312 1.28 (0.90) 1.28 (0.88) 0.968
Min LF/HF 0.04 (0.07) 0.08 (0.08) 0.093 0.09 (0.16) 0.11 (0.10) 0.608 0.13 (0.10) 0.17 (0.16) 0.118 0.12 (0.12) 0.12 (0.10) 0.989
Max LF/HF 6.77 (4.54) 8.17 (5.91) 0.188 4.18 (2.85) 6.97 (5.34) 0.013 4.84 (3.10) 5.78 (4.77) 0.245 6.03 (4.59) 5.75 (3.84) 0.618
  1. Values are mean (SD)
  2. CGM continuous glucose monitoring, ECG electrocardiogram, SD standard deviation, CV coefficient of variation, HR heart rate, SDNN standard deviation of normal RR intervals, RMSSD root mean square of the differences in successive pairs of RR intervals, LF low frequency, HF high frequency