Skip to main content

Table 1 Clinical and metabolic characteristics at baseline and follow-up

From: Reduced HDL function in children and young adults with type 1 diabetes

  Baseline 5-year follow-up
Diabetes Controls p value Diabetes Controls p value
n 293 111   241 128  
Diabetes duration (years) 5.6 (3.4)    10.3 (3.6)   
Insulin pump users (%) 52.9    61.3   
Age (years) 13.7 (2.8) 13.3 (2.5) 0.175 18.7 (2.8) 18.7 (2.9) 0.895
Girls, n (%) 147 (50.2) 63 (56.8) 0.265 129 (53.5) 72 (56.3) 0.661
Height (cm) 160.4 (14.5) 157.6 (13.3) 0.072 171.2 (9.1) 172.1 (9.2) 0.383
Weight (kg) 54.8 (16.8) 48.4 (13.2) <0.001 71.0 (14.6) 66.9 (12.5) 0.006
BMI (kg/m2) 20.8 (4.0) 19.1 (3.1) <0.001 24.1 (4.3) 22.5 (3.4) <0.001
Waist circumference (cm) 71.2 (10.0) 66.8 (6.6) <0.001 79.0 (9.6) 75.5 (8.2) < 0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 101 (10) 98 (10) 0.018 112 (11) 111 (10) 0.656
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 60 (8) 58 (7) 0.018 70 (8) 68 (8) 0.024
HbA1c (%) (mmol/mol, SD) 8.4 (1.3) [68, 13] 5.3 (0.3) [34, 3] <0.001 9.0 (1.4) [75, 15] 5.2 (0.3) [3, 33] <0.001
Total Cholesterol (mg/dL) 178 (31) 166 (27) 0.001 186 (39) 170 (39) 0.001
HDL (mg/dL) 70 (15) 66 (15) 0.065 62 (19) 62 (15) 0.161
LDL (mg/dL) 97 (27) 89 (27) 0.016 104 (31) 97 (31) 0.014
Triglycerides (mg/dL)a 62 (44, 80) 62 (44, 80) 0.457 80 (53, 115) 71 (53, 89) 0.024
Apolipoprotein B (mg/dL) 74 (19) 66 (17) <0.001 90 (26) 79 (23) <0.001
Apolipoprotein A-I (mg/dL) 154 (28) 147 (27) 0.026 156 (31) 148 (27) 0.006
Urine albumin/creatinine (mg/mmol)a 6.2 (3.5, 11.5) 5.7 (3.3, 12.0) 0.637 5.8 (2.7, 13.7) 3.0 (1.7, 8.0) 0.001
HDL-apoA-1 exchange (%) 50.7 (9.8) 52.4 (9.2) 0.105 52.1 (10.4) 52.1 (10.2) 0.960
HAE-apoA-1 ratio (%/mg/dL) 0.33 (0.06) 0.36 (0.06) <0.001 0.34 (0.06) 0.36 (0.06) 0.003
  1. Mean values (SD)
  2. HAE HDL-apoA-I exchange
  3. aMedian (25th and 75th percentile)