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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants

From: Westernization of lifestyle affects quantitative and qualitative changes in adiponectin

  Native Japanese Japanese–Americans
N (male/female) 325 (124/201) 304 (134/170)
Age (years) 55.3 ± 11.5 55.5 ± 10.8
BMI (kg/m²) 23.0 ± 2.99 23.2 ± 3.22
Smoking (none/ex/current) 226/53/46 172/81/51*
SBP (mmHg) 124.4 ± 17.7 129.2 ± 18.1*
DBP (mmHg) 77.6 ± 11.1 82.5 ± 11.7*
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 208.8 ± 34.4 212.8 ± 36.1
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 62.0 ± 14.5 61.1 ± 16.2
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 127.7 ± 31.5 129.7 ± 33.7
Triglyceride (mg/dL)a 88.0 (62.0‒124.0) 109.5 (77.3‒156.8)*
CRP (mg/L)a 0.31 (0.17‒0.65) 0.46 (0.24‒1.06)*
Glucose category (NGT/IGT/DM) 247/67/11 237/39/28*
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 94.1 ± 11.4 91.8 ± 20.1
2-h glucose (mg/dL) 119.6 ± 35.4 118.8 ± 57.3
Matsuda index (mU/L)a 7.35 (4.84‒9.98) 6.06 (3.93‒8.66)*
Total APN (μg/mL)a 8.84 (5.84‒11.6) 8.15 (5.50‒11.3)*
C1q-APN/total-APN ratioa 8.96 (7.12‒11.6) 10.2 (7.73‒13.2)*
  1. Data are presented as number, mean ± SD or median (25th‒75th percentile levels)
  2. BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, CRP C-reactive protein, NGT normal glucose tolerance, IGT impaired glucose tolerance, DM diabetes mellitus, APN adiponectin
  3. P < 0.05 native Japanese vs. Japanese–Americans
  4. aParameters were transformed logarithmically before analysis