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Table 4 Changes in lipid parameters, markers of atherosclerosis, oxidative stress, and blood pressure

From: Effectiveness of dapagliflozin on vascular endothelial function and glycemic control in patients with early-stage type 2 diabetes mellitus: DEFENCE study

Parameters Dapagliflozin group Metformin group P value
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)
 Baseline 201.8 ± 33.1 (35) 194.1 ± 31.9 (34) 0.33
 Week 16 205.3 ± 36.0 (37) 182.2 ± 24.8 (37) 0.002
 Percentage change (%) 2.2 ± 13.4 (35) −5.4 ± 9.3 (34) 0.008
 P value within group 0.35 0.002  
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)
 Baseline 50.9 ± 9.0 (35) 53.4 ± 15.4 (34) 0.42
 Week 16 55.1 ± 9.4 (37) 54.7 ± 15.2 (37) 0.90
 Percentage change (%) 8.1 ± 13.4 (35) 3.4 ± 15.3 (34) 0.18
 P value within group 0.001 0.20  
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)
 Baseline 109.6 ± 33.2 (35) 96.1 ± 25.0 (34) 0.06
 Week 16 124.0 ± 33.6 (37) 102.7 ± 26.0 (37) 0.003
 Percentage change (%) 19.1 ± 28.0 (35) 9.7 ± 22.2 (34) 0.13
 P value within group <0.001 0.016  
Non-HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)
 Baseline 150.9 ± 32.8 (35) 140.7 ± 35.2 (34) 0.22
 Week 16 150.2 ± 33.1 (37) 127.4 ± 24.7 (37) 0.001
 Percent change (%) 0.9 ± 17.0 (35) −7.7 ± 12.1 (34) 0.018
 P value within group 0.74 <0.001  
Triglyceride (mg/dL)
 Baseline 142.8 ± 53.1 (37) 145.2 ± 69.0 (37) 0.87
 Week 16 155.9 ± 81.1 (37) 136.2 ± 62.6 (37) 0.25
 Percentage change (%) 11.3 ± 40.8 (37) 4.2 ± 53.4 (37) 0.53
 P value within group 0.10 0.63  
Adiponectin (μg/mL)
 Baseline 2.6 ± 1.8 (37) 2.7 ± 1.8 (37) 0.77
 Week 16 2.7 ± 2.2 (37) 2.8 ± 2.0 (37) 0.79
 Change 0.1 ± 0.7 (37) 0.1 ± 0.7 (37) 0.97
 P value within group 0.46 0.41  
ApoB48 (μg/mL)
 Baseline 4.8 ± 3.0 (37) 3.6 ± 1.9 (37) 0.036
 Week 16 5.1 ± 3.9 (37) 3.1 ± 1.8 (37) 0.008
 Change 0.3 ± 2.8 (37) −0.4 ± 2.2 (37) 0.23
 P value within group 0.55 0.24  
Urinary 8-OHdG/creatinine (ng/mg Cre)
 Baseline 4.6 ± 2.4 (36) 4.8 ± 2.0 (36) 0.62
 Week 16 4.0 ± 1.9 (37) 5.8 ± 2.3 (37) <0.001
 Change −0.6 ± 1.8 (36) 1.1 ± 2.2 (36) <0.001
 P value within group 0.047 0.004  
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
 Baseline 129.2 ± 13.7 (37) 130.0 ± 12.4 (37) 0.78
 Week 16 126.4 ± 13.2 (37) 130.3 ± 13.5 (37) 0.21
 Change −2.8 ± 11.6 (37) 0.3 ± 12.6 (37) 0.27
 P value within group 0.15 0.88  
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
 Baseline 81.8 ± 9.6 (37) 79.9 ± 8.5 (37) 0.36
 Week 16 80.0 ± 8.1 (37) 79.1 ± 7.5 (37) 0.61
 Change −1.8 ± 7.8 (37) −0.8 ± 5.8 (37) 0.52
 P value within group 0.16 0.41  
  1. Data are mean ± standard deviation (n), or median [first quartile, third quartile] (n). P values show results for comparisons between groups by t test or Wilcoxon rank sum test. P values within groups are results of paired t test
  2. ApoB48 apolipoprotein B48, 8OHdG 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosin. See Table 1 for other abbreviations