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Table 3 Changes in parameters of glycemic control

From: Effectiveness of dapagliflozin on vascular endothelial function and glycemic control in patients with early-stage type 2 diabetes mellitus: DEFENCE study

Parameters Dapagliflozin group Metformin group P value
HbA1c (%)
 Baseline 6.8 ± 0.5 (37) 6.9 ± 0.5 (37) 0.39
 Week 16 6.5 ± 0.5 (37) 6.5 ± 0.6 (37) 0.76
 Change −0.2 ± 0.4 (37) −0.4 ± 0.3 (37) 0.09
 P value within group 0.001 <0.001  
HbA1c (mmol/mol)
 Baseline 50.3 ± 5.5 (37) 51.4 ± 5.7 (37) 0.39
 Week 16 48.0 ± 5.4 (37) 47.5 ± 6.2 (37) 0.76
 Change −2.4 ± 4.2 (37) −3.9 ± 3.5 (37) 0.09
 P value within group 0.001 <0.001  
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL)
 Baseline 133.5 ± 27.1 (37) 139.6 ± 20.2 (37) 0.28
 Week 16 122.5 ± 19.5 (37) 125.2 ± 20.0 (37) 0.56
 Change −11.0 ± 20.2 (37) −14.4 ± 16.9 (37) 0.44
 P value within group 0.002 <0.001  
C-peptide (ng/mL)
 Baseline 2.1 ± 0.8 (37) 2.3 ± 1.1 (37) 0.34
 Week 16 2.0 ± 0.8 (37) 2.1 ± 1.0 (37) 0.65
 Change −0.1 ± 0.5 (37) −0.2 ± 0.5 (37) 0.29
 P value within group 0.27 0.007  
Insulin (μIU/mL)
 Baseline 8.9 ± 5.5 (37) 10.3 ± 7.5 (37) 0.38
 Week 16 7.3 ± 4.4 (37) 9.2 ± 7.4 (37) 0.20
 Change −1.6 ± 3.7 (37) −1.1 ± 3.8 (37) 0.58
 P value within group 0.012 0.08  
Glucagon (pg/mL)
 Baseline 164.6 ± 33.5 (37) 171.6 ± 42.4 (37) 0.43
 Week 16 152.9 ± 24.5 (37) 159.3 ± 36.8 (37) 0.39
 Change −11.7 ± 31.2 (37) −12.3 ± 31.6 (37) 0.93
 P value within group 0.029 0.023  
HOMA-IR
 Baseline 3.1 ± 2.4 (37) 3.7 ± 3.2 (37) 0.34
 Week 16 2.3 ± 1.5 (37) 3.0 ± 3.0 (37) 0.16
 Change −0.8 ± 1.9 (37) −0.7 ± 1.5 (37) 0.73
 P value within group 0.010 0.009  
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation (n). P values show results for comparisons between groups by t test. P values within groups are results of paired t test
  2. HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. See Table 1 for other abbreviations