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Table 1 Patients’ characteristics

From: Effectiveness of dapagliflozin on vascular endothelial function and glycemic control in patients with early-stage type 2 diabetes mellitus: DEFENCE study

Characteristics Dapagliflozin group Metformin group P value
Sex (male/female) 25 (67.6)/12 (32.4) 22 (59.5)/15 (40.5) 0.63
Age (years) 57.9 ± 8.3 (37) 59.4 ± 10.1 (37) 0.51
Duration of diabetes (years) 5.4 ± 4.4 (37) 6.3 ± 4.2 (37) 0.40
BMI (kg/m2) 26.8 ± 4.6 (37) 26.3 ± 3.5 (37) 0.60
Current smoking 10 (27.0) 6 (16.2) 0.50
Current alcohol 14 (37.8) 12 (32.4) 0.81
Diabetic retinopathy 6 (16.2) 2 (5.4) 0.26
 Simple retinopathy 4 (10.8) 0 (0.0) 0.09
 Preproliferative retinopathy 1 (2.7) 0 (0.0)  
 Proliferative retinopathy 1 (2.7) 2 (5.4)  
Diabetic nephropathy 10 (27.0) 13 (35.1) 0.62
 UACR 30–299 mg/g creatinine 9 (24.3) 13 (35.1) 0.45
 UACR ≥300 mg/g creatinine 1 (2.7) 0 (0.0)  
Diabetic neuropathy 6 (16.2) 6 (16.2) 1.00
 Polyneuropathy 3 (8.1) 0 (0.0) 0.13
 Mononeuropathy 1 (2.7) 5 (13.5)  
 Unknown 2 (5.4) 1 (2.7)  
Macrovascular complications 1 (2.7) 1 (2.7) 1.00
 Cerebrovascular disease 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 Coronary disease 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 Peripheral arterial disease 1 (2.7) 1 (2.7) 1.00
Other complications 34 (91.9) 32 (86.5) 0.71
 Renal disease 1 (2.7) 0 (0.0) 1.00
 Liver disease 4 (10.8) 3 (8.1) 1.00
 Hypertension 15 (40.5) 14(37.8) 1.00
 Hyperlipidemia 25 (67.6) 23 (62.2) 0.81
HbA1c (NGSP%) 6.8 ± 0.5 (37) 6.9 ± 0.5 (37) 0.39
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 50.3 ± 5.5 (37) 51.4 ± 5.7 (37) 0.39
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dL) 133.5 ± 27.1 (37) 139.6 ± 20.2 (37) 0.28
C-peptide (ng/mL) 2.1 ± 0.8 (37) 2.3 ± 1.1 (37) 0.34
Insulin (μIU/mL) 8.9 ± 5.5 (37) 10.3 ± 7.5 (37) 0.38
Glucagon (pg/mL) 164.6 ± 33.5 (37) 171.6 ± 42.4 (37) 0.43
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 129.2 ± 13.7 (37) 130.0 ± 12.4 (37) 0.78
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 81.8 ± 9.6 (37) 79.9 ± 8.5 (37) 0.36
Total cholesterol (mg/dL) 201.8 ± 33.1 (35) 194.1 ± 31.9 (35) 0.33
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 50.9 ± 9.0 (35) 53.4 ± 15.4 (35) 0.42
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL) 109.6 ± 33.2 (35) 96.1 ± 25.0 (35) 0.06
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 142.8 ± 53.1 (37) 145.2 ± 69.0 (37) 0.87
Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 0.7 ± 0.1 (37) 0.7 ± 0.2 (37) 0.72
Uric acid (mg/dL) 5.6 ± 1.1 (37) 5.8 ± 1.2 (37) 0.41
Anti-diabetic drugs 37 (100.0) 37 (100.0)
 Biguanides 37 (100.0) 37 (100.0)
 DPP-4 inhibitors 6 (16.2) 7 (18.9) 1.00
 Sulfonylureas 2 (5.4) 4 (10.8) 0.67
 α-Glucosidase inhibitors 2 (5.4) 1 (2.7) 1.00
 Glinides 2 (5.4) 4 (10.8) 0.67
 Thiazolidinediones 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Antihypertensive drugs 11 (29.7) 14 (37.8) 0.62
 Diuretic drugs 0 (0.0) 1 (2.7) 1.00
 Calcium channel blockers 6 (16.2) 10 (27.0) 0.40
 ACE inhibitors 4 (10.8) 0 (0.0) 0.11
 Angiotensin II receptor blockers 6 (16.2) 11 (29.7) 0.27
 Direct renin inhibitors 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 β-Blockers 1 (2.7) 0 (0.0) 1.00
 α-Blockers 1 (2.7) 0 (0.0) 1.00
Lipid-lowering agents 23 (62.2) 21 (56.8) 0.81
 Statins 14 (37.8) 15 (40.5) 1.00
 Fibrates 7 (18.9) 5 (13.5) 0.75
 Ezetimibe 2 (5.4) 1 (2.7) 1.00
 Probucol 1 (2.7) 0 (0.0) 1.00
 EPAs 3 (8.1) 3 (8.1) 1.00
 Resins 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Antithrombotic agents 1 (2.7) 1 (2.7) 1.00
 Antiplatelet agents 1 (2.7) 1 (2.7) 1.00
 Anticoagulants 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
  1. Data are number (%), mean ± standard deviation (n), or median [first quartile, third quartile] (n). P values by the t test or Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous data, and by Fisher exact test for categorical data
  2. BMI body mass index, UACR urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, NGSP national glycohemoglobin standardization program, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, EPA eicosapentaenoic acid