Skip to main content

Table 4 Univariate and multivariate analysis of predictive factors of the study cohort outcomes

From: Multipolar pacing by cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillators treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus failing heart patients: impact on responders rate, and clinical outcomes

  HR Univariate (95 % CI) p value HR Multivariate (95 % CI) p value
A. Catheter dislodgments
 Age 0.902 [0.807–1.008] 0.068 0.866 [0.741–1.013] 0.072
 Obesity 1.718 [0.218–3.568] 0.608    
 Renal dysfunction 1.073 [0.136–4.873] 0.946    
 NYHA 3 0.417 [0.108–1.612] 0.205    
 QRS duration 0.962 [0.872–1.061] 0.437    
 LVEF 1.072 [0.928–1.237] 0.345    
 Quadripolar LV 5.278 [1.175–7.32] 0.035* 0.112 [0.014–0.893] 0.039*
B. Phrenic nerve stimulation
 Age 1.024 [0.962–1.089] 0.458    
 Obesity 2.604 [0.773–8.767] 0.122 0.658 [0.144–3.01] 0.59
 Renal dysfunction 0.043 [0.02–1.79] 0.306    
 NYHA 3 2.94 [2.6–4.9] 0.001* 0.97 [0.022–0.423] 0.2
 QRS duration 1.019 [0.975–1.065] 0.405    
 LVEF 1.012 [0.93–1.101] 0.79    
 Quadripolar LV 3.783 [1.404–10.191] 0.008* 0.246 [0.088–0.686] 0.007*
C. Re-intervention for catheter dislodgments
 Age 0.902 [0.807–1.008] 0.068 0.866 [0.741–1.013] 0.072
 Obesity 1.718 [0.218–3.568]     
 Renal dysfunction 1.073 [0.136–4.873]     
 NYHA 3 0.417 [0.108–1.612]     
 QRS duration 0.962 [0.872–1.061]     
 LVEF 1.072 [0.928–1.237]     
 Quadripolar LV 5.278 [1.175–7.32] 0.035* 0.112 [0.014–0.893] 0.039*
D. Hospital admission for heart failure worsening
 Age 0.823 [0.961–1.051] 0.823    
 Obesity 1.062 [0.33–3.419] 0.92    
 Renal  dysfunction 0.898 [0.322–2.501] 0.836    
 NYHA 3 1.667 [0.926–3.01] 0.089 0.624 [0.326–1.193] 0.154
 QRS duration 1.019 [0.983–1.056] 0.3 1.012 [0.973–1.052] 0.559
 LVEF 0.98 [0.926–1.038]     
 Quadripolar LV 1.683 [1.04–3.03] 0.05 0.516 [0.279–0. 955] 0.035*
E. Atrial fibrillation events
 Age 1.031 [0.968–1.099] 0.343    
 Obesity 5.571 [2.038–15.232] 0.001* 1.36 [1.09–1.88] 0.02*
 Renal dysfunction 0.992 [0.231–4.257] 0.991    
 NYHA 3 2.58 [1.001–6.649] 0.05* 0.557 [0.195–1.591] 0.274
 QRS duration 1.018 [0.971–1.067] 0.457    
 LVEF 1.043 [0.95–1.146] 0.375    
 Quadripolar LV 3.29 [1.205–8.982] 0.02* 0.261 [0.086–0.794] 0.018*
F. All cause deaths
 Age 1.138 [1.04–1.246] 0.05* 1.149 [0.89–1.288] 0.058
 Obesity 2.5 [0.9–2.91] 0.986    
 Renal dysfunction 0.88 [0.108–7.193] 0.905    
 NYHA 3 1.471 [0.276–7.759] 0.649    
 QRS duration 1.051 [0.984–1.123] 0.141    
 LVEF 1.069 [0.914–1.249] 0.404    
 Quadripolar LV 0.415 [0.104–1.659] 0.214    
G. Cardiac deaths
 Age 1.3 [1.185–1.426] 0.01* 1.332 [0.858–1.532] 0.056
 Obesity 0.7 [0.2–2.896] 0.168    
 Renal dysfunction 1.676 [0.2–14.02] 0.633    
 NYHA 3 0.386 [0.069–2.164] 0.279    
 QRS duration 0.932 [0.806–1.078] 0.342    
 LVEF 0.912 [0.815–1.044] 0.201    
 Quadripolar LV 0.521 [0.154–1.758] 0.293    
  1. In this table the representation of study outcomes, as catheter dislodgments (A), phrenic nerve stimulation events (B), re-intervention for catheter dislodgments (C), hospital admissions for heart failure worsening (D), atrial fibrillation events (E), all cause deaths (F), and cardiac deaths (G), and multivariate predictive factors
  2. We have used for statistical analysis, a 95% interval of confidence (IC), and a significant statistical p value, p < 0.05. The symbol * was marking factor with a p value <0.05. To test the final statistical used model, we have performed the Hosmer and Lemeshow test, with a χ² = 2.775, and a p value <0.05
  3. NYHA 3 New York Heart Association third class, LVEF left ventricle ejection fraction, LV left ventricle