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Table 1 Clinical data, medication and demographics

From: Retinal vessel diameters and reactivity in diabetes mellitus and/or cardiovascular disease

  DM (n = 36) CVD (n = 43) DM and CVD (n = 37)
DM type: 1/2 2/34 1/36
Ethnicity: CA/SA/B 28/4/4 37/4/2 32/5/0
Age (years) 64 (10) 64 (11) 65 (9)
Gender (m/f) 24/12 30/13 32/5
SBP (mmHg) 130 (13) 125 (19) 125 (16)
DBP (mmHg) 75 (9) 75 (13) 67 (10)*
HR (beats per minute) 76 (14) 67 (11)* 72 (16)
IOP (mmHg) 15 (3)+ 13 (2) 14 (2)
BMI (kg/m2) 31 (6) 27 (4)* 31 (6)
HbA1c (mmol/mol) 58 (15) 42 (3)* 61 (20)
DM duration (years) 11 (4.5–16) 10 (4–17)
Medications
 Calcium channel blocker 20, 56% 13, 30% 14, 38%
 ACEI/ARB 23, 64% 31, 72% 30, 81%
 Metformin 26, 72% 21, 57%
 Sulphonylurea 7, 19% 7, 19%
 DPP-4 inhibitor 8, 22% 6, 16%
 Insulin 15, 42% 14, 38%
 GLP-1 agonist 4, 11% 4, 11%
 Piaglitazone 4, 11%   2, 5%
 Lipid-lowering 26, 72% 41, 95% 36, 97%
 Aspirin 11, 31% 35, 81% 30, 81%
 Clopidogrel 1, 3% 7, 16% 7, 19%
 Nitrate 11, 26% 11, 30%
 Oral anticoagulant 6, 17% 5, 12% 5, 14%
 Beta-blocker 10, 28% 19, 44% 22, 59%
 Diuretic 18, 50% 9, 21% 18, 49%
 Thyroxine 6, 17% 6, 14% 3, 8%
Cardiovascular disease
 Coronary artery disease 31, 72% 30, 81%
 Peripheral artery disease 5, 12% 4, 11%
 Cerebrovascular disease 8, 19% 3, 8%
  1. Data presented as mean with standard deviation, or as number of subjects and percentage
  2. CA caucasian, SA South Asian, B black, M male, f female, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HR heart rate, IOP intraocular pressure, BMI body mass index, HbA1C glycated haemoglobin, DM diabetes mellitus, ACEI angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (‘gliptins’), GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1 (exenatide, liraglutide)
  3. * Different compared to the two other groups (p < 0.01)
  4. + Different to the CVD group (p < 0.01)