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Table 1 Basic clinical characteristics of women with GDM and controls

From: Subclinical inflammation associated with prolonged TIMP-1 upregulation and arterial stiffness after gestational diabetes mellitus: a hospital-based cohort study

  GDM Controls p value
Average time since delivery, years 3.7 ± 1.0 3.7 ± 0.9 0.818
Age, years 35.8 ± 4.4 35.9 ± 4.6 0.854
Primiparous, n (%) 23 (19.2%) 23 (19.2%) 1.000
Therapy of GDM during pregnancy
 Insulin, n (%) 24 (20.0%)   
 Metformin, n (%) 1 (0.8%)   
 Dietary therapy, n (%) 95 (79.2%)   
Pack-years of smoking 3.8 ± 6.0 2.4 ± 4.6 0.012
During the previous month, history of
 Respiratory infection, n (%) 45 (37.5%) 44 (36.7%) 0.854
 Other infectious disease, n (%) 18 (15.0%) 10 (8.3%) 0.053
 Trauma, n (%) 9 (7.5%) 5 (4.2%) 0.264
BMI, kg/m2 28.3 ± 5.0 27.5 ± 5.4 0.069
Systolic BP, mmHg 122.4 ± 12.5 119.0 ± 11.5 0.034
Diastolic BP, mmHg 73.5 ± 9.0 71.8 ± 8.7 0.176
Heart rate, beats per minute 65.9 ± 9.1 63.8 ± 9.6 0.017
TC, mmol/L 4.7 ± 0.9 4.6 ± 0.8 0.329
F-Gluc, mmol/L 5.6 ± 0.6 5.3 ± 0.3 <0.001
F-Insu, mU/L 5.2 ± 3.6 4.6 ± 3.6 0.087
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD if not mentioned otherwise
  2. BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, F-Gluc fasting glucose, F-Insu fasting insulin, TC total cholesterol