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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants according to obstructive sleep apnea severity

From: Association between obstructive sleep apnea severity and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes

  All AHI < 15 15 ≤ AHI < 30 AHI > 30 p value
n 126 39 27 60
Age, years 59.3 (9.5) 59.6 (10.6) 61.4 (10.4) 58.1 (8.3) 0.33
Women, % 40.3 51.3 36.0 35.0 0.24
BMI, kg/m2 33.2 (6.3) 32.0 (6.4) 32.5 (6.2) 34.4 (6.1) 0.14
Waist circumference, cm 113.0 (17.0) 108.0 (18.9) 115.2 (16.6) 115.3 (15.9) 0.22
Waist-to-hip ratio 1.2 (0.4) 1.1 (0.3) 1.3 (0.4) 1.3 (0.5) 0.19
Current smokers, % 13.5 18.8 14.3 7.1 0.42
Hypertension, % 59.0 46.2 66.7 64.4 0.14
Duration of diabetes, years 9.0 (7.7) 10.1 (7.4) 10.4 (8.7) 7.7 (7.3) 0.20
Metformin, % 90.3 87.1 94.7 90.7 0.83
Sulfonylurea, % 26.7 24.0 27.8 27.9 0.93
DPP-4 inhibitors, % 19.8 25.0 16.7 17.5 0.70
Injectable GLP-1 analog, % 9.6 3.7 0.0 18.0 0.01
Insulin, % 13.1 10.3 29.2 8.5 0.03
Antihypertensive medications
 ACE inhibitors, % 32.9 28.6 25.0 39.0 0.50
 CCBs, % 17.1 7.7 6.3 27.5 0.05
 β-blockers, % 23.2 32.1 16.7 20.0 0.38
 Cholesterol-lowering drugs, % 61.4 56.7 58.8 65.9 0.71
 Antiaggregants, % 14.5 18.5 11.8 12.8 0.76
Sleep-disordered breathing indices
 AHI, n 33.7 (27.5) 7.1 (4.3) 21.9 (4.0) 56.2 (23.3) <0.0001
 ODI, n 34.2 (45.7) 10.7 (17.9) 21.7 (16.6) 54.8 (56.3) <0.0001
 T90, % 54.0 (75.8) 30.8 (58.1) 35.2 (32.0) 77.9 (92.2) <0.0001
 TDS, min. 55.2 (17.6) 52.0 (16.5) 53.4 (10.2) 58.1 (20.4) 0.22
  1. Data are expressed as mean (standard deviation) or percentages
  2. BMI body mass index, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, CCBs calcium channel blockers, AHI apnea–hypopnea index, ODI 3% oxygen desaturation index, T90 % sleep time spent with oxygen saturation <90%, TDS time desaturation summation index [(100% − mean oxygen saturation during sleep) × total sleep time] [50]