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Table 2 Hazard ratios (95% CI) for risk of incident type-2 diabetes according to usual levels of lipoprotein(a) concentration

From: Lipoprotein(a) and incident type-2 diabetes: results from the prospective Bruneck study and a meta-analysis of published literature

  No. incident type 2 diabetes cases Median (range), Lp(a), mg/dL HR (95% CI) Model 1 P value HR (95% CI) Model 2 P value HR (95% CI) Model 3 P value
Quintile
 1 20 2.3 (0.8–3.6) 1.36 (0.74, 2.48) 0.326 1.35 (0.73, 2.49) 0.336 1.37 (0.74, 2.53) 0.311
 2 26 5.1 (3.7–6.6) 1.90 (1.04, 3.45) 0.036 2.15 (1.18, 3.93) 0.013 2.24 (1.22, 4.10) 0.009
 3 17 8.8 (6.7–12.3) 1.42 (0.76, 2.66) 0.269 1.34 (0.71, 2.51) 0.365 1.43 (0.75, 2.71) 0.276
 4 18 17.5 (12.5–26.9) 1.05 (0.53, 2.08) 0.896 1.02 (0.51, 2.03) 0.961 1.01 (0.51, 2.01) 0.981
 5 13 51.9 (27.1–316.2) [Reference]   [Reference]   [Reference]  
Per SD lower log Lp(a)    1.10 (0.93, 1.29) 0.253 1.12 (0.95, 1.32) 0.176 1.12 (0.95, 1.32) 0.171
  1. Model 1 was adjusted for age and sex. Model 2 was additionally adjusted for alcohol consumption, BMI, smoking, SES and physical activity. Model 3 was adjusted for the same factors as Models 1 and 2 plus systolic blood pressure, HDL-C, log hsCRP and waist–hip ratio
  2. Usual Lp(a) concentration are predicted long-term average levels of Lp(a) estimated by regressing the log-transformed Lp(a) values measured at the 5-year follow-up on the log-transformed Lp(a) baseline values
  3. CI confidence intervals, BMI body mass index, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, HR hazard ratio, hsCRP high sensitivity c-reactive protein, Lp(a) lipoprotein(a), SD standard deviation, SES socioeconomic status