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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of participants and cross-sectional associations with lipoprotein(a) (n = 815)

From: Lipoprotein(a) and incident type-2 diabetes: results from the prospective Bruneck study and a meta-analysis of published literature

Baseline variables Mean (SD), median (25th–75th), or n (%) Age- and sex-adjusted % mean difference in Lp(a) (95% CI) per SD higher level or compared to reference group
Baseline Lp(a), mg/dLa 8.9 (4.5–22.2)
Apo(a) isoform size, KIV repeats 25 (4.5) −38.0 (−41.0, −34.0)**
Age, mean (SD), years 58 (11.0) 1.3 (−4.6, 7.6)
Male sex, % 403 (49.5) −2.1 (−13.2, 10)
Current smoking, % 199 (24.4) 13.0 (−1.8, 30.0)
Alcohol consumption, gram/week 10 (0–50) −1.4 (−8.0, 5.7)
Physical activity, Baecke score
 Low 148 (18.2) [Reference]
 Medium 312 (38.3) −16.0 (−29.0, 0.65)
 High 355 (43.6) 0.1 (−16.0, 19.0)
SES
 Low 504 (61.8) [Reference]
 Medium 173 (21.2) −0.1 (−14.0, 17.0)
 High 138 (16.9) −17.0 (−30.0, −1.0)
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg 144 (21.0) 1.6 (−5.0, 8.6)
BMI, kg/m2 25 (3.7) 2.3 (−3.7, 8.7)
WHR 0.89 (0.07) 4.9 (−2.5, 13.0)
LDL-C, mg/dLb 137 (38.0) 26.0 (19.0, 33.0)**
Triglycerides, mg/dL 130 (78.4) 1.9 (−7.6, 4.3)
hsCRP, mg/L 0.14 (0.084–0.28) 0.3 (−5.7, 6.6)
HOMA-IR 2.5 (1.6–3.7) −1.6 (−7.4, 4.7)
HbA1c, % 5.4 (0.4) 12.0 (5.3, 20.0)*
Fasting glucose, mg/dL 97 (9.5) 0.7 (−5.3, 7.1)
  1. BMI body mass index, HDL-c high density lipoprotein cholesterol, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, hsCRP high sensitivity c-reactive protein, KIV kringle IV, SD standard deviation, SES socioeconomic status, WHR waist hip ratio
  2. * P ≤ 0.01
  3. ** P ≤ 0.001
  4. aSingle measurement in 1990
  5. bLDL-C corrected by removing Lp(a) multiplied by 0.45 [23]