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Table 4 Echocardiographic predictors of incident type 2 diabetes in a subgroup stratified according to baseline glucose metabolism (NGM vs. prediabetes), adjusting for age, sex, BMI ≥23 kg/m2, fasting plasma glucose, 2-h plasma glucose, hypertension, statin therapy, family history of diabetes, smoking status, alcohol intake, HOMA-IR, total cholesterol, TG/HDL ratio, and hsCRP: multivariate logistic regression analyses

From: Subclinical left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and incident type 2 diabetes risk: the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study

Variables NGM (n = 788) Prediabetes (n = 1029)
OR (95% CI) P value P valuea OR (95% CI) P value P valuea
LA volume index (mL/m2) 1.037 (0.982–1.095) 0.190 1.000 1.021 (0.993–1.048) 0.140 1.000
LV mass index (g/m2) 0.999 (0.973–1.026) 0.948 1.000 1.014 (1.004–1.025) 0.009 0.126
LV hypertrophy (yes vs. no) 0.848 (0.268–2.683) 0.779 1.000 1.315 (0.833–2.074) 0.240 1.000
TDI Sm velocity (cm/s) 0.892 (0.633–1.257) 0.513 1.000 0.872 (0.764–0.995) 0.041 0.574
TDI Em velocity (cm/s) 0.958 (0.725–1.267) 0.765 1.000 0.864 (0.770–0.968) 0.012 0.168
E/Em ratio 1.078 (0.900–1.292) 0.416 1.000 1.064 (1.000–1.134) 0.051 0.714
LV diastolic dysfunction (yes vs. no) 1.000 (0.389–2.575) 0.999 1.000 1.906 (1.335–2.721) <0.001 0.005
  1. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, HDL high-density lipoprotein, HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, hsCRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein, LV left ventricle, NGM normal glucose metabolism, OR odds ratio, TDI tissue Doppler imaging, TG triglycerides
  2. aCorrected P values using Bonferroni method for multiple comparisons