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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of the total study population and the metformin subgroups

From: Association between metformin use and below-the-knee arterial calcification score in type 2 diabetic patients

  Total population Metformin-treated Metformin-untreated p-value
n 198 161 37  
Age (y) 64.4 ± 8.4 (65) 63.8 ± 8.2 (64) 66.9 ± 9 (66) 0.040
Males 158 (80%) 132 (82%) 26 (70%) 0.109
Diabetes duration (y) 14.6 ± 9.3 (13) 14.7 ± 9.1 (13) 14.2 ± 10.6 (12) 0.785
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.2 ± 5.3 (28.0) 29.1 ± 5.2 (28.2) 29.3 ± 5.4 (29.4) 0.829
Previous CVD 139 (70%) 112 (70%) 27 (73%) 0.683
Hypertension 163 (82%) 131 (81%) 32 (86%) 0.462
Insulin treatment 94 (47%) 66 (41%) 28 (76%) 0.001
Neuropathy 31 (15%) 21 (13%) 10 (27%) 0.035
Retinopathy 37 (19%) 26 (6%) 11 (30%) 0.056
Current or ex-smoker 119 (60%) 99 (61%) 20 (54%) 0.405
Calcification score (AU) 2528 ± 5779 (524) 2033 ± 4514 (434) 4684 ± 9291 (1044) 0.012
MCS score 19.1 ± 10.9 (24) 18 ± 10.7 (20) 23.6 ± 10.8 (24) 0.010
Occlusion score 3.5 ± 5.3 (0) 3.2 ± 5.1 (0) 4.6 ± 6.1 (3) 0.073
eGFR-MDRD (ml/min) 76 ± 20 (76) 77 ± 20 (77) 70 ± 18 (71) 0.048
Microalbuminuria (mg/l) 166 ± 841 (23) 178 ± 924 (23) 110 ± 255 (17) 0.658
HbA1c (%/mmol/mol) 7.8 ± 1.5 (7.5)/62 ± 16 (58) 7.8 ± 1.4 (7.5)/62 ± 15 (58) 8.0 ± 1.7 (7.5)/64 ± 19 (58) 0.521
Blood glucose (mmol/l) 8.2 ± 2.8 (7.8) 8.2 ± 2.8 (7.8) 7.9 ± 2.8 (7.6) 0.590
Calcium (mmol/l) 2.32 ± 0.11 (2.32) 2.32 ± 0.11 (2.32) 2.31 ± 0.14 (2.31) 0.738
Phosphate (mmol/l) 1.02 ± 0.15 (1.02) 1.02 ± 0.15 (1.02) 1.04 ± 0.17 (1.02) 0.390
us-CRP (mg/l) 2.2 ± 2.5 (1.2) 2.1 ± 2.4 (1.2) 2.7 ± 2.9 (1.5) 0.448
Interleukin-6 (pg/ml) 5.1 ± 22.2 (2.9) 3.5 ± 3.6 (2.8) 12.4 ± 50.5 (3.3) 0.033
LDL cholesterol (g/l) 1.93 ± 0.74 (1.81) 1.93 ± 0.76 (1.78) 2.04 ± 0.67 (1.89) 0.213
HDL cholesterol (g/l) 1.08 ± 0.33 (1.06) 1.06 ± 0.34 (1.01) 1.15 ± 0.28 (1.17) 0.128
Triglycerides (g/l) 1.58 ± 1.05 (1.26) 1.62 ± 1.11 (1.24) 1.42 ± 0.72 (1.42) 0.628
  1. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD (median) for quantitative variables, and as the number (percentage) for qualitative variables
  2. CVD cardiovascular disease, AU Agatston unit, MCS medial calcific sclerosis, eGFR-MDRD estimated glomerular filtration rate according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, HbA 1c glycated haemoglobin, us-CRP ultrasensitive C-reactive protein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein