Skip to main content

Table 1 Comparison of the various pharmacotherapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus

From: Cardiovascular safety of non-insulin pharmacotherapy for type 2 diabetes

  Metformin Sulfonylureas Meglitinides TZDs DPP-4 inhibitors GLP-1 agonists SGLT-2 inhibitors AGIs
1st generation 2nd and 3rd generation Rosiglitazone Pioglitazone  
Relative glycemic efficacy +++ +++ + +++ ++ +++ ++ ++
Effect on weight Loss/neutral Gain Gain Gain Gain Gain Neutral Loss Loss Neutral
Overall CV safety Benefit Caution Neutral No data Caution Likely benefit Neutral Benefit Benefit No data
Significant side effects Lactic acidosis Profound hypoglycemia, secondary failure Hypoglycemia Association with increased fracture risk, bladder cancera GI effects, acute pancreatitisa GI effects Ketoacidosis, UTI Flatulence, diarrhea
  1. TZDs thiazolidinediones, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1, SGLT-2 sodium glucose cotransporter 2, AGIs alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, CV cardiovascular, GI gastrointestinal, UTI urinary tract infection
  2. aCausative relationship not established