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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population at 5 year follow-up

From: Leptin and adiponectin as predictors of cardiovascular risk after gestational diabetes mellitus

  Non-GDM GDM
N = 241 31
Follow-up time 4.8 (4.4, 5.4) 5.0 (4.5, 5.4)
Age (years) 37.5 ± 3.8 38.6 ± 3.8
Height (cm) 169 ± 6 168 ± 5
BMI (kg/m2) 22.8 (20.9, 25.2) 24.1 (21.7, 28.1)*
Primipara n (%) 217 (90.0) 25 (80.6)
Family history heart disease n 137 (57.3) 22 (75.9)
Family history diabetes n (%) 74 (30.7) 13 (41.9)
Currently smoking n (%) 38 (20.4) 9 (39.1)*
Previous smoker n (%) 55 (27.1) 8 (36.4)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 110 (100, 120) 110 (100, 130)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 70 (60, 74) 70 (65, 80)
Insulin sensitivity 275 (196, 377) 210 (126, 304)**
Insulin resistance 0.67 (0.44, 0.97) 0.96 (0.48, 1.33)*
Β-cell function 1049 (816, 1373) 712 (559, 1247)**
TG/HDL-C ratio 0.46 (0.36, 0.63) 0.65 (0.45, 1.03)**
LDL/HDL-C ratio 1.65 (1.25, 2.04) 2.00 (1.62, 2.48)*
ApoB/ApoA ratio 0.44 (0.36, 0.53) 0.53 (0.42, 0.62)*
  1. Data given as mean ± SD when normal distributed and median (25th, 75th) when skewed distributed. Preterm delivery (n = 12), hypertension (n = 7) and preeclampsia (n = 10) are excluded
  2. * p < 0.05
  3. ** p < 0.001