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Table 2 Summary (mean ± SE) of cardiac pulse wave, tissue Doppler and M-mode imaging parameters measured before (pre) and after treatment (post) with the SGLT-2 inhibitor

From: Sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition with empagliflozin improves cardiac diastolic function in a female rodent model of diabetes

Parameter Pre-treatment Post-treatment
CkC (9) DbC (6) DbE (6) P value CkC (9) DbC (6) DbE (6) P value
Diastolic function
 E, m s−1 665 ± 28 641 ± 40 696 ± 50 ND 632 ± 25 680 ± 29 647 ± 57 ND
 A, m s−1 455 ± 34 508 ± 19 463 ± 34 ND 417 ± 24 510 ± 31 470 ± 45 ND
 E/A 1.52 ± 0.12 1.26 ± 0.05 1.53 ± 0.12 ND 1.5 ± 0.08 1.35 ± 0.09 1.39 ± 0.06 ND
 Dt, ms 29.4 ± 3.0 32.7 ± 3.9 27.8 ± 1.8 ND 24.9 ± 1.8 31.1 ± 3.3 26.3 ± 1.8 ND
 E′, m s−1 27.0 ± 1.8 14.0 ± 1.6* 15.9 ± 2.2 <0.001 26.9 ± 1.4 15.5 ± 1.7* 20.4 ± 1.2 <0.001
 A′, m s−1 21.5 ± 2.5 16.6 ± 0.8 18.0 ± 4.1 ND 19.0 ± 1.7 18.3 ± 2.7 11.9 ± 0.9§ 0.036
 E′/A′ 1.31 ± 0.09 0.84 ± 0.08* 0.93 ± 0.07§ 0.002 1.47 ± 0.11 0.89 ± 0.08*,† 1.76 ± 0.17 <0.001
 E/E′ 25.3 ± 1.7 48 ± 5.6* 47 ± 2.5§ <0.001 24 ± 1.6 46 ± 4.4*,† 29 ± 1.8 <0.001
 (E/E′/IDd) 8.7 ± 0.4 13.4 ± 1.8 12.4 ± 0.6 ND 7.8 ± 0.5 12.3 ± 1.3*,† 7.8 ± 0.9 0.009
 IVRT, ms 20.9 ± 1.8 19.9 ± 0.8 18.0 ± 1.0 ND 19.0 ± 2.3 16.0 ± 0.4 15.8 ± 0.4 ND
 LA, mm 1.55 ± 0.10 2.35 ± 0.13* 2.25 ± 0.10§ <0.001 1.40 ± 0.06 1.97 ± 0.03* 2.04 ± 0.1§ <0.001
 Ao, mm 1.21 ± 0.06 1.37 ± 0.02 1.42 ± 0.05 0.077 1.26 ± 0.06 1.29 ± 0.02 1.27 ± 0.05 ND
 LA/Ao 1.29 ± 0.07 1.72 ± 0.09* 1.60 ± 0.11a 0.009 1.14 ± 0.08 1.54 ± 0.11* 1.61 ± 0.1§ 0.003
Parameter Pre-treatment Post-treatment
CkC (5) DbC (6) DbE (6) P value CkC (5) DbC (6) DbE (6) P value
Systolic function
 EF, % 72 ± 6 76 ± 1 71 ± 2 ND 74 ± 2 74 ± 3 76 ± 2 ND
 FS, % 42 ± 5 44 ± 1 39 ± 2 ND 42 ± 2 43 ± 3 45 ± 2 ND
 CO, ml min−1 21 ± 2 41 ± 5* 41 ± 4§ 0.001 29 ± 3 49 ± 5* 39 ± 5 0.02
 SV, μl 56 ± 4 101 ± 11* 95 ± 5§ 0.016 63 ± 7 108 ± 9* 87 ± 10 0.01
Left ventricle wall and lumen measures
 LVAWTd, mm 0.70 ± 0.07 0.91 ± 0.05* 0.85 ± 0.04 0.052 0.81 ± 0.05 0.82 ± 0.11 0.84 ± 0.05 ND
 LVIDd, mm 3.40 ± 0.14 3.52 ± 0.11 3.68 ± 0.14 ND 3.50 ± 0.05 3.79 ± 0.17 3.86 ± 0.19 ND
 LVPWTd, mm 0.69 ± 0.04 0.83 ± 0.04* 0.78 ± 0.04 0.026 0.75 ± 0.02 0.92 ± 0.09 0.83 ± 0.05 ND
 LVIDs, mm 2.00 ± 0.24 1.96 ± 0.08 2.23 ± 0.13 ND 2.13 ± 0.12 2.28 ± 0.17 2.27 ± 0.11 ND
 RWT 0.41 ± 0.03 0.49 ± 0.03 0.45 ± 0.03 ND 0.45 ± 0.02 0.48 ± 0.08 0.43 ± 0.03 ND
 LVM, mg 59 ± 3 86 ± 4* 81 ± 3§ 0.001 76 ± 3 97 ± 7 98 ± 9 0.073
 LVM/TL, mg mm−1      4.30 ± 0.17 5.56 ± 0.36 5.71 ± 0.52 0.057
  1. E velocity of early mitral flow, A velocity of late mitral flow, Dt deceleration time of early mitral inflow, E′ early peak velocity of septal annulus, A′ late peak velocity of septal annulus, E/E′ index of LA filling pressure, (E/E′)/LVIDd index of diastolic stiffness, IVRT isovolumic relaxation time, LA left atrium diameter, Ao aorta diameter, EF ejection fraction, FS fractional shortening, CO cardiac output, SV stroke volume, LVAWTd anterior wall thickness at end diastole, LVIDd LV inner diameter at end diastole, LVPWTd LV wall thickness at end diastole, LVIDs LV inner diameter at end systole, RWT relative wall thickness, LVM LV mass, TL tibia length (only available post-treatment), ND no differences
  2. Numbers in parentheses are sample sizes. Within time point post hoc comparisons: * P < 0.05 for CkC vs DbC;  DbC vs DbE; § CkC vs DbE; a P < 0.051CkC vs DbE