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Table 1 Study characteristics of smokers and non-smokers

From: Relationship of cardiometabolic parameters in non-smokers, current smokers, and quitters in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Country No of participant Intervention/control Age/sex Included/excluded from meta-analysis
Study design
Smoker Non-smoker Smoker Non-smoker
Reynolds et al. [42] T2DM USA 414 66 348 18.6
39.4% M
15.6
35.6% M
Included
Cross sectional study
Reynolds et al. [42]T1DM USA 2327 203 2124 18.3
50.7% M
14.2
50.5% M
Included
Cross sectional study
Hofer et al. [43] T1DM Austria and Germany 27,561 4051 23,510 13.66
21.6% M
13.66
78.4% M
Included
Cross sectional study
Thomas et al. [44] T2DM China and Hong Kong 496 196 300 53.5
100% M
53
100% M
Included
Cross sectional study
Schwab et al. [45] T1DM Germany 92 19 73 15.9
100% F
11.7
100% F
Excluded (skewed data)
Cross sectional study
Wakabayashi et al. [46] T1 and T2 DM Japan 2563 1332 1231 52.15 54.7 Included
Cross sectional study
Hanesn et al. [47] T1DM Denmark 32 16 16 31
87.5% M
31
87.5% M
Included
Cross sectional study
Nilsson et al. [48] T1DM Sweden 11,513 1646 9867 41.3
47% M
40.8
55% M
Included
Cross sectional study
Nilsson et al. [48] T2DM Sweden 40,648 4512 36,136 61.1
61% M
68.4
53% M
Included
Cross sectional study
Gerber et al. [49] T2DM UK 763 603 160 35.1
71.3% M
36.1
52.1% M
Included
Prospective cohort study
Ohkuma et al. [50] T2DM Japan 1184 679 505 65.6 61.2 Included
Cross sectional study