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Table 1 General characteristics of study subjects according to gender

From: Vitamin D modifies the associations between circulating betatrophin and cardiometabolic risk factors among youths at risk for metabolic syndrome

Parameters All Male Female P Value
N (%) 559 294 (53 %) 265 (47 %) /
Age (years) 20.2 ± 2.9 20.0 ± 3.0 20.4 ± 2.8 0.110
Obesity traits
BMI (kg/m2) 25.7 ± 5.7 27.0 ± 5.8 24.3 ± 5.3 <0.001
WC (cm) 85.2 ± 14.6 90.5 ± 14.6 79.4 ± 12.1 <0.001
Percent body fat 30.4 ± 10.3 27.9 ± 9.4 33.2 ± 10.5 <0.001
Pressures (mmHg)
SBP 114.7 ± 14.0 120.5 ± 13.8 108.2 ± 11.2 <0.001
DBP 73.2 ± 10.5 75.9 ± 10.3 70.2 ± 9.8 <0.001
Lipids (mmol/l)
TC 4.35 ± 0.92 4.29 ± 0.86 4.41 ± 0.99 0.131
TG 1.13 ± 0.83 1.25 ± 1.01 1.01 ± 0.54 0.001
LDL-C 2.53 ± 0.79 2.56 ± 0.72 2.50 ± 0.86 0.371
HDL-C 1.44 ± 0.32 1.34 ± 0.28 1.54 ± 0.34 <0.001
Glucose and insulin-related traits
Glucose0 (mmol/l) 4.92 ± 0.69 5.01 ± 0.86 4.82 ± 0.41 0.001
Glucose30 (mmol/l) 7.94 ± 1.51 8.17 ± 1.60 7.69 ± 1.36 <0.001
Glucose120 (mmol/l) 6.06 ± 1.84 6.17 ± 2.07 5.95 ± 1.54 0.179
HbA1c (%) 5.38 ± 0.48 5.42 ± 0.54 5.33 ± 0.40 0.035
Insulin0 (mU/L)a 1.94 ± 0.74 1.97 ± 0.75 1.89 ± 0.72 0.219
Insulin30 (mU/L)a 4.26 ± 0.72 4.27 ± 0.74 4.24 ± 0.71 0.636
Insulin120 (mU/L)a 3.61 ± 0.80 3.55 ± 0.86 3.67 ± 0.73 0.106
HOMA-IRa 0.41 ± 0.77 0.46 ± 0.77 0.35 ± 0.75 0.092
ISI M a 1.79 ± 0.65 1.76 ± 0.66 1.82 ± 0.64 0.278
IGIa 0.22 ± 0.81 0.16 ± 0.79 0.27 ± 0.82 0.127
DIOa 2.01 ± 0.77 1.93 ± 0.73 2.09 ± 0.81 0.015
Hepar and renal-related traits
AST (IU/L)a 2.94 ± 0.32 3.02 ± 0.36 2.86 ± 0.25 <0.001
ALT (IU/L)a 2.96 ± 0.54 3.16 ± 0.55 2.75 ± 0.43 <0.001
Creatinine (umol/L)a 4.19 ± 0.23 4.32 ± 0.14 4.04 ± 0.21 <0.001
Uric acid (umol/L)a 5.84 ± 0.27 6.00 ± 0.21 5.66 ± 0.21 <0.001
Adipokines
FGF21 (pg/ml)a 4.39 ± 1.12 4.39 ± 1.11 4.39 ± 1.13 0.986
Adiponectin (μg/mL)a 1.90 ± 0.65 1.75 ± 0.72 2.07 ± 0.53 <0.001
Betatrophin (pg/ml)a 5.77 ± 0.37 5.82 ± 0.36 5.71 ± 0.37 <0.001
Vitamin D (ng/ml)a 2.64 ± 0.41 2.76 ± 0.40 2.52 ± 0.38 <0.001
  1. Values in italics are significant at P < 0.05
  2. BMI body mass index; WC waist circumference; SBP Systolic blood pressure; DBP Diastolic blood pressure; TC total cholesterol; TG triglycerides; LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; HOMA-IR homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance; ISI M insulin sensitivity Matsuda index; IGI insulinogenesis index; DIO oral disposition index; AST aspartate aminotransferase; ALT alanine aminotransferase; FGF21 fibroblast growth factor 21
  3. aSkewed distributions were natural logarithmically transformed. Vitamin D was adjusting for visiting season. Data were expressed as n (%), mean ± SD. P values are from Student’s t test