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Table 3 Associations between the dietary patterns derived by principal component analysis with serum lipid levels

From: Associations between explorative dietary patterns and serum lipid levels and their interactions with ApoA5 and ApoE haplotype in patients with recently diagnosed type 2 diabetes

  PCA pattern 1 PCA pattern 2 PCA pattern 3
T1 T2 T3   T1 T2 T3   T1 T2 T3  
  Mean (95 % CI) Mean (95 % CI) Mean (95 % CI) P trend * Mean (95 % CI) Mean (95 % CI) Mean (95 % CI) P trend * Mean (95 % CI) Mean (95 % CI) Mean (95 % CI) P trend *
Triglycerides (mg/dl)
Model 1 127 (115; 140) 124 (113; 137) 143 (129; 158) 0.049 133 (120; 147) 136 (123; 150) 125 (113; 138) 0.196 136 (123; 151) 123 (112; 136) 135 (122; 149) 0.987
Model 2 115 (99; 132) 111 (97; 128) 127 (110; 147) 0.083 120 (103; 138) 121 (105; 140) 112 (98; 129) 0.190 121 (105; 140) 109 (94; 126) 119 (103; 137) 0.895
Model 3 87 (65; 115) 84 (64; 111) 96 (72; 127) 0.096 87 (65; 116) 91 (69; 120) 85 (64; 112) 0.489 92 (70; 122) 83 (63; 110) 88 (67; 117) 0.551
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl)
Model 1 47.9 (45.7; 50.1) 50.4 (48.2; 52.6) 45.5 (43.3; 47.7) 0.039 47.1 (44.8; 49.3) 47.8 (45.6; 50.1) 48.9 (46.7; 51.1) 0.282 47.2 (45.0; 49.5) 48.5 (46.2; 50.7) 48.1 (45.9; 50.3) 0.674
Model 2 49.9 (46.9; 52.9) 52.7 (49.7; 55.7) 49.0 (45.9; 52.0) 0.199 49.8 (46.7; 52.9) 50.1 (47.0; 53.2) 51.5 (48.6; 54.4) 0.276 50.0 (47.0; 52.9) 51.3 (48.2; 54.4) 50.8 (47.8; 53.8) 0.730
Model 3 52.1 (46.1; 58.1) 55.4 (49.6; 61.3) 51.2 (45.1; 57.2) 0.187 53.0 (46.9; 59.1) 52.9 (46.9; 58.9) 54.3 (48.3; 60.3) 0.314 53.4 (47.3; 59.4) 53.4 (47.4; 59.4) 53.7 (47.6; 59.8) 0.810
LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl)
Model 1 120 (113; 127) 135 (128; 142) 125 (118; 132) 0.266 127 (121; 134) 128 (121; 135) 125 (118; 131) 0.097 132 (125; 139) 124 (117; 131) 124 (118; 131) 0.159
Model 2 109 (101; 118) 123 (115; 132) 117 (107; 126) 0.217 117 (107; 126) 117 (108; 126) 116 (107; 124) 0.192 121 (112; 130) 113 (103; 122) 114 (106; 123) 0.142
Model 3 108 (90; 126) 122 (105; 140) 115 (97; 133) 0.193 117 (98; 135) 116 (98; 134) 118 (100; 136) 0.326 122 (105; 140) 113 (95; 131) 114 (96; 132) 0.094
  1. Values are least-square means with 95 % CI
  2. * Based on multiple linear regression models with dietary pattern scores as continuous variables. All P-values non-significant when considering multiple testing and applying Bonferroni correction for m = 3 dependent variables to be analyzed, i.e. triglycerides, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol (significance level P < 0.05/3, P < 0.017). Triglycerides were log-transformed prior to analysis to improve normality and back transformed for presentation in the table
  3. PCA principal component analysis; T tertile
  4. Model 1, unadjusted
  5. Model 2 adjusted for age, sex, diabetes duration, glucose- and lipid-lowering medication
  6. ‡ Model 2 adjusted for age, sex, glucose- and lipid-lowering medication
  7. Model 3 adjusted for model 2 plus current employment status, highest school-leaving qualification, and current/former employment position
  8. Italics indicates P < 0.05