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Table 3 Crude and adjusted rate ratios for the risk of aortic aneurysm with oral antidiabetic drugs

From: Association between use of oral-antidiabetic drugs and the risk of aortic aneurysm: a nested case–control analysis

Dosage No. (%) Odds ratio (95 % CI)
Cases (n = 4468) Control (n = 4468) Crude p value Adjusteda p value
No metformin useb 2882 2455 1 [Reference]   1 [Reference]  
Metformin use (daysc) 1586 2013 0.64 (0.58–0.70) <0.001 0.72 (0.64–0.80) <0.001
 Quantile 1 (11, 6–17) 364 363 0.85 (0.73–0.99) 0.042 0.91 (0.78–1.08) 0.291
 Quantile 2 (56, 41–79) 326 400 0.66 (0.56–0.77) <0.001 0.71 (0.60–0.85) <0.001
 Quantile 3 (181, 139–233) 303 404 0.60 (0.51–0.70) <0.001 0.67 (0.56–0.81) <0.001
 Quantile 4 (459, 375–576) 316 404 0.60 (0.50–0.71) <0.001 0.70 (0.58–0.86) 0.001
 Quantile 5 (1127, 861–1666) 277 442 0.46 (0.38–0.55) <0.001 0.57 (0.45–0.72) <0.001
No DPP-4 inhibitor useb 4305 4281 1 [Reference]   1 [Reference]  
DPP-4 use (daysc) 163 187 0.85 (0.68–1.07) 0.168 1.07 (0.84–1.36) 0.582
 Quantile 1 (25, 14–30) 45 28 1.58 (0.98–2.55) 0.062 1.99 (1.20–3.29) 0.007
 Quantile 2 (70, 56–84) 28 39 0.70 (0.43–1.15) 0.157 0.96 (0.57–1.62) 0.884
 Quantile 3 (140, 112–168) 31 40 0.74 (0.46–1.20) 0.224 1.00 (0.61–1.65) 0.992
 Quantile 4 (238, 210–273) 30 39 0.75 (0.46–1.22) 0.249 1.03 (0.62–1.72) 0.904
 Quantile 5 (509, 413–672) 29 41 0.70 (0.43–1.13) 0.143 1.01 (0.60–1.68) 0.978
No sulfonylurea useb 2779 2412 1 [Reference]   1 [Reference]  
Sulfonylurea use (daysc) 1689 2056 0.68 (0.62–0.75) <0.001 0.82 (0.74–0.92) 0.001
 Quantile 1 (20, 9–37) 402 359 0.96 (0.83–1.12) 0.624 1.04 (0.88–1.23) 0.630
 Quantile 2 (120, 84–165) 336 401 0.70 (0.60–0.82) <0.001 0.81 (0.69–0.97) 0.018
 Quantile 3 (424, 313–544) 336 413 0.67 (0.57–0.79) <0.001 0.79 (0.66–0.95) 0.010
 Quantile 4 (1128, 881–1408) 312 437 0.55 (0.47–0.65) <0.001 0.71 (0.59–0.87) 0.001
 Quantile 5 (3164, 2329–4620) 303 446 0.51 (0.43–0.61) <0.001 0.74 (0.59–0.94) 0.014
No alpha-glucosidase inhibitors useb 4077 3999 1 [Reference]   1 [Reference]  
Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors use (daysc) 391 469 0.81 (0.70–0.93) 0.004 0.95 (0.81–1.11) 0.507
 Quantile 1 (7, 5–10) 83 108 0.75 (0.56–1.00) 0.050 0.89 (0.66–1.21) 0.463
 Quantile 2 (28, 19–35) 79 77 0.99 (0.72–1.36) 0.948 1.14 (0.82–1.59) 0.448
 Quantile 3 (68, 56–85) 81 88 0.89 (0.66–1.22) 0.477 1.04 (0.76–1.44) 0.793
 Quantile 4 (164, 134–210) 79 93 0.83 (0.61–1.12) 0.212 1.03 (0.75–1.42) 0.861
 Quantile 5 (444, 344–630) 69 103 0.63 (0.45–0.87) 0.005 0.87 (0.61–1.23) 0.423
No thiazolidinedione useb 4171 4065 1 [Reference]   1 [Reference]  
Thiazolidinedione use (daysc) 297 403 0.70 (0.59–0.82) <0.001 0.82 (0.69–0.98) 0.003
 Quantile 1 (19, 13–28) 71 69 0.97 (0.70–1.36) 0.873 1.12 (0.79–1.59) 0.518
 Quantile 2 (65, 56–84) 54 86 0.58 (0.41–0.83) 0.003 0.77 (0.53–1.12) 0.167
 Quantile 3 (206, 168–266) 54 87 0.59 (0.42–0.84) 0.003 0.77 (0.53–1.11) 0.164
 Quantile 4 (532, 413–630) 65 74 0.83 (0.59–1.16) 0.281 1.14 (0.79–1.63) 0.485
 Quantile 5 (1247, 977–1980) 53 87 0.57 (0.40–0.81) 0.002 0.80 (0.54–1.17) 0.241
  1. aAdjusted for using alpha blocker, ACE inhibitor or ARB, beta blocker, calcium channel blocker, diuretics, antiplatelet agent, warfarin, statin, steroid, antidepressants, NSAID, and insulin
  2. bUse of one prescription at any time prior to the index date
  3. cMedians, interquartile range