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Table 1 Characteristics of the cases and controls

From: Association between use of oral-antidiabetic drugs and the risk of aortic aneurysm: a nested case–control analysis

  Cases Control p value
Patients (no.) 4468 4468  
Age, mean (SD), years 67.5 (47.3) 67.5 (47.3) >0.99
Male sex 2969 (66.5) 2969 (66.5) >0.99
Monthly income
 Dependent 1614 (36.1) 1614 (36.1) >0.99
 0–19,100 NT dollars 1291 (28.9) 1291 (28.9)  
 19,100–42,000 NT dollars 1454 (32.5) 1454 (32.5)  
 > 42,000 NT dollars 109 (2.4) 109 (2.4)  
Urbanizationa
 Level 1 1290 (28.9) 1290 (28.9) >0.99
 Level 2 3000 (67.1) 3000 (67.1)  
 Level 3 158 (3.5) 158 (3.5)  
 Level 4 20 (0.4) 20 (0.4)  
Charlson comorbidity index scoreb (SD) 5.1 (2.6) 5.0 (2.5) 0.051
Adapted diabetes complications severity index scorec (SD) 2.7 (1.7) 2.6 (1.7) 0.057
Duration of diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, months (SD) 67.5 (47.3) 67.5 (47.3) >0.99
Other comorbidity
 Hypertension 4049 (90.6) 4049 (90.6) >0.99
 Myocardial infarction 463 (10.4) 463 (10.4) >0.99
 Cerebrovascular disease 2261 (50.6) 2261 (50.6) >0.99
 Chronic kidney disease 1529 (34.2) 1529 (34.2) >0.99
 Peripheral artery disease 395 (8.8) 395 (8.8) >0.99
Anti-hypertensive drug use
 Alpha blocker 1619 (36.2) 1501 (33.6) 0.009
 ACE inhibitor or ARB 3538 (79.2) 3386 (75.8) <0.001
 Beta blocker 3571 (79.9) 3369 (75.4) <0.001
 Calcium channel blocker 3812 (85.3) 3596 (80.5) <0.001
 Diuretics 3345 (74.9) 3102 (69.4) <0.001
Antiplatelet agent 3751 (84.0) 3630 (81.2) 0.001
Warfarin 271 (6.1) 193 (4.3) <0.001
Statin 1976 (44.2) 1838 (41.1) 0.003
Antidepressants 1984 (44.4) 1826 (40.9) 0.001
Steroid 3870 (86.6) 3813 (85.3) 0.082
NSAID 4427 (99.1) 4426 (99.1) 0.912
Insulin 419 (9.4) 453 (10.1) 0.225
  1. aUrbanization levels in Taiwan are divided into four strata according to the Taiwan National Health Research Institute publications. Level 1 designates the most urbanized areas, and level 4 designates the least urbanized areas
  2. bCharlson comorbidity index (CCI) score is used to determine overall systemic health. With each increased level of CCI score, there are stepwise increases in the cumulative mortality
  3. cAdapted diabetes complications severity index is a 13-point scale from 7 complication categories: retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, peripheral vascular disease, and metabolic, ranging from each complication. Each complication produced a numeric score ranging from 0 to 2 (0 no abnormality, 1 some abnormality, 2 severe abnormality)