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Table 3 Hazard ratios for outcomes during follow-up according to different presentations of major PAD at baseline

From: Presentations of major peripheral arterial disease and risk of major outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the ADVANCE-ON study

  Absence of PAD Lower-extremity ulceration or amputation Peripheral revascularization Lower-extremity ulceration or amputation
(vs. absent PAD)
Peripheral revascularization
(vs. absent PAD)
HR (95 % CI) p HR (95 % CI) p
All-cause mortality, n (%) 2101 (19.8) 92 (30.7) 63 (33.2) 1.39 (1.12-1.72) 0.003 1.31 (1.01–1.70) 0.04
Major macrovascular events, n (%) 2025 (19.1) 78 (26.0) 56 (29.5) 1.39 (1.11–1.75) 0.005 1.64 (1.25–2.16) 0.0004
Cardiovascular death, n (%) 904 (8.5) 50 (16.7) 29 (15.3) 1.91 (1.43–2.54) <0.0001 1.52 (1.04–2.23) 0.03
Myocardial infarction, n (%) 665 (6.3) 29 (9.7) 25 (13.2) 1.50 (1.03–2.19) 0.03 1.73 (1.14–2.62) 0.01
Stroke, n (%) 924 (8.7) 24 (8.0) 18 (9.5) 1.02 (0.67–1.55) 0.92 1.54 (0.96–2.48) 0.07
Major clinical microvascular events, n (%) 763 (7.2) 28 (9.3) 11 (5.8) 1.44 (0.98–2.11) 0.06 0.88 (0.48–1.61) 0.68
Retinal photocoagulation or blindness, n (%) 632 (5.9) 24 (8.0) 9 (4.7) 1.53 (1.01–2.30) 0.04 0.94 (0.48–1.83) 0.85
End-stage renal disease or renal death, n (%) 160 (1.5) 4 (1.3) 3 (1.6) 0.84 (0.31–2.30) 0.74 0.94 (0.29–3.02) 0.92
  1. Adjusted as in model 2: region of origin, sex, age, duration of diabetes, body mass index, waist circumference, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, disturbance of 10-g monofilament sensation, absence of ankle and knee reflexes, HbA1C, estimated glomerular filtration rate (and its square for macrovascular analyses), total-, and HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, history of ever smoking and current alcohol drinking, use of antihypertensive, lipid lowering and antiplatelet drugs, and study allocations. p < 0.05 was significant