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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of participants according to different presentations of major PAD at baseline

From: Presentations of major peripheral arterial disease and risk of major outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: results from the ADVANCE-ON study

  Lower-extremity ulceration or amputation (n = 300) Peripheral revascularization (n = 190) p
Male sex, n (%) 177 (59.0) 140 (73.7) 0.0009
Region of origin: Asia, n (%) 81 (27.0) 12 (6.3) <0.0001
Region of origin: established market economies, n (%) 158 (52.7) 135 (71.0)
Region of origin: Eastern Europe, n (%) 61 (20.3) 43 (22.6)
Age (years): mean (SD) 66.2 (6.7) 66.6 (6.9) 0.55
Duration of diabetes (years): median (Q1, Q3) 8.0 (4.0, 12.0) 6.0 (3.0, 11.0) 0.007
Waist circumference (cm): mean (SD) 101 (14) 102 (14) 0.72
Body mass index (kg/m2): mean (SD) 29.0 (5.9) 28.5 (4.4) 0.32
Heart rate (bpm): mean (SD) 74.5 (11.1) 72.4 (13.2) 0.06
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg): mean (SD) 145 (22) 144 (22) 0.76
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg): mean (SD) 80 (11) 78 (10) 0.13
Use of antihypertensive treatment, n (%) 210 (70.0) 143 (75.3) 0.21
Disturbance of 10-g monofilament sensation, n (%) 59 (19.7) 30 (15.8) 0.28
Absence of ankle reflex, n (%) 102 (34.0) 51 (26.8) 0.10
Absence of knee reflex, n (%) 54 (18.0) 19 (10.0) 0.02
HbA1c (%): median (Q1, Q3) 7.3 (6.5, 8.7) 7.0 (6.4, 7.9) 0.18
HbA1c (mmol/mol): median (Q1, Q3) 56 (47, 72) 53 (46, 63)
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 74 (18) 70 (18) 0.01
Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (µg/mg): median (Q1, Q3) 19 (9, 64) 14 (6, 55) 0.06
Serum total cholesterol (mmol/l): mean (SD) 5.2 (1.1) 4.8 (1.0) 0.0004
Serum HDL cholesterol (mmol/l): mean (SD) 1.2 (0.3) 1.2 (0.3) 0.37
Serum triglycerides (mmol/l): median (Q1, Q3) 1.7 (1.2, 2.5) 1.8 (1.2, 2.3) 0.56
Use of lipid lowering drugs, n (%) 103 (34.3) 126 (66.3) <0.0001
Use of antiplatelet drugs, n (%) 139 (46.3) 143 (75.3) <0.0001
History of current smoking, n (%) 47 (15.7) 30 (15.8) 0.97
History of ever smoking, n (%) 153 (51.0) 133 (70.0) <0.0001
History of current drinking, n (%) 86 (28.7) 89 (46.8) <0.0001
  1. Comparison of qualitative and quantitative parameters were performed using Chi square and ANOVA tests, respectively. Wilcoxon test was used for variables with skewed distribution (duration of diabetes, HbA1c, urinary albumin-creatinine ratio and triglycerides). p < 0.05 was significant
  2. Asia: Philippines, China, Malaysia, India; Established market economies: Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, New Zealand, United Kingdom; Eastern Europe: the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Slovakia. eGFR, estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate computed by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation
  3. History of current drinking was defined as consumption of alcohol at least once a week for most weeks of the previous year